American musicians died at 76

Here are 27 famous musicians from United States of America died at 76:

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 Ulm-April 18, 1955 Princeton) also known as Einstein was an American physicist, scientist, writer, philosopher, theoretical physicist, mathematician, author and teacher. His children are Eduard Einstein, Hans Albert Einstein and Lieserl Einstein.

Einstein is widely considered one of the most influential physicists of the 20th century. He is best known for his theory of relativity which revolutionized the way scientists and physicists understood gravity, time and space. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect.

Einstein was born in Germany but moved to the United States in 1933 to escape the rise of Nazism. He settled in Princeton, New Jersey where he continued to work and lecture until his death in 1955.

In addition to his scientific contributions, Einstein was also an outspoken pacifist and civil rights activist. He was a vocal critic of nuclear weapons and lobbied President Roosevelt to not use them during World War II.

Einstein's unique appearance, uncombed hair and penchant for wearing sandals made him a cultural icon in addition to his scientific accolades. He continues to be an inspiration to physicists and scientists around the world.

Einstein's contributions to science extended beyond his theory of relativity and Nobel Prize-winning work on the photoelectric effect. He also made significant contributions to the development of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and cosmology. In fact, he proposed the concept of a cosmological constant, which he later called his "biggest blunder," but was later found to have some validity in the study of dark energy.

Despite his groundbreaking work, Einstein faced significant challenges in his personal life. He struggled with speech challenges as a child and was seen as a disobedient student. Additionally, he had difficulty finding employment in the scientific community until he landed a job as a patent clerk in Switzerland.

Einstein was married twice - first to Mileva Marić, with whom he had three children, and then to his cousin Elsa Löwenthal. He also had several romantic affairs throughout his life. In addition to his political activism, he was an avid music lover, violinist, and sailor.

Today, Einstein remains one of the most well-known and celebrated figures in science and popular culture. His famous equation E=mc2 has become a symbol of scientific discovery and innovation, and his legacy continues to inspire generations of scientists, philosophers, and activists.

Einstein was known for his outstanding intellect and his ability to think outside the box. He was never afraid to question the status quo, and his scientific theories challenged long-held beliefs about the nature of the universe. Einstein's influence on science can still be felt today in fields such as particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

In addition to his contributions to science, Einstein was also a prolific writer and a gifted communicator. He wrote numerous books and articles on science, philosophy, and politics, and his ideas continue to stimulate discussions and debates around the world. He was also a skilled public speaker and traveled extensively to promote his views on peace, democracy, and social justice.

Einstein's work and life have been the subject of many books, films, and documentaries. His personality and image continue to captivate the public, and he is often referred to as a cultural icon. His famous equation, E=mc², has become synonymous with the concept of energy, and his name is often used to describe brilliance and genius. Einstein's legacy will undoubtedly continue to inspire future generations of scientists and thinkers for years to come.

Despite his remarkable achievements, Einstein was always humble about his abilities and his place in the world. He believed in the power of curiosity and imagination, encouraging others to never stop questioning and exploring the world around them. He had a kind and gentle demeanor, and was known for his warm sense of humor and quick wit. Even in his later years, he continued to work tirelessly on his scientific research, and remained an active member of the academic community until his death. Einstein's influence on science and society continues to be felt to this day, and his legacy is a testament to the power of human creativity, curiosity, and perseverance.

He died as a result of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

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C. Gordon Fullerton

C. Gordon Fullerton (October 11, 1936 Rochester-August 21, 2013 Lancaster) was an American engineer and astronaut.

Fullerton was a former Air Force pilot and flew missions in the Vietnam War before joining NASA in 1969. He served as a pilot on two Space Shuttle missions, STS-51-F in 1985 and STS-61-A in 1985, logging over 380 hours in space. Fullerton was also a pilot on a number of research flights with NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, including the first flights of the Space Shuttle Enterprise. Throughout his career, he received numerous awards and honors for his contributions to aerospace engineering and aviation.

Fullerton was born in Rochester, New York, but grew up in Portland, Oregon. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1959 with a degree in mechanical engineering and later earned a master's degree in mechanical engineering from the California Institute of Technology.

During his time in the Air Force, Fullerton flew over 135 missions in Vietnam as a fighter pilot. He retired from the Air Force in 1988 with the rank of Colonel.

After retiring from NASA in 1986, Fullerton worked for Lockheed Martin and later as a consultant for NASA. He was also an active member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

In addition to his many achievements in aerospace engineering and aviation, Fullerton was an accomplished musician and an avid golfer. He is remembered as a dedicated and talented pilot who made significant contributions to the space program.

Fullerton's first Space Shuttle mission, STS-51-F, was the Spacelab-2 mission where he served as pilot alongside commander Charles G. Fullerton. During this mission, Fullerton operated a variety of experiments related to astronomy, physics, and life sciences. The second mission he piloted, STS-61-A, was part of a joint project between NASA and West Germany's space agency, DLR. This mission was notable for carrying the first German astronaut, Reinhard Furrer, into space.

Throughout his time at NASA, Fullerton also served in a variety of other roles, including as a member of the astronaut office's Space Shuttle support team and as a lead astronaut on the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL) project. Fullerton was also involved in the testing and development of the Space Shuttle's flight control systems.

Fullerton was a member of several prestigious organizations, including the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Order of Daedalians. In recognition of his contributions, he received numerous awards and honors, such as the NASA Outstanding Performance Award and the NASA Exceptional Service Medal.

In his personal life, Fullerton was married to Marie, his wife of over 50 years, and had two children. He was also an accomplished musician, playing the piano and accordion, and often performed with a jazz band. Fullerton was also an avid golfer and enjoyed playing when he had free time.

Fullerton's contributions to the field of aerospace engineering extended beyond his time at NASA. Throughout his career, he authored or co-authored numerous technical papers and articles, and served on various advisory boards and committees. He was an active member of the SETI Institute's Board of Trustees, where he helped promote the search for extraterrestrial life through scientific exploration.

One notable achievement in Fullerton's career was his involvement in the development and testing of the supersonic aircraft, the North American XB-70 Valkyrie. As a member of NASA's Flight Research Center, Fullerton contributed to the testing of the aircraft's flight control systems and helped gather data on its performance at high speeds and altitudes.

Fullerton's passion for flight extended to his personal life as well. He was an avid private pilot and often flew his own planes for leisure. He was also a member of the Experimental Aircraft Association and helped promote aviation education and safety.

Fullerton's legacy as a pilot, engineer, and musician continues to inspire generations of aspiring astronauts and pilots. He will always be remembered as a dedicated and talented individual who made significant contributions to the field of aerospace engineering and aviation.

He died in complications from a stroke.

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Edward Dahlberg

Edward Dahlberg (July 22, 1900 Boston-February 27, 1977 Santa Barbara) was an American novelist.

Dahlberg was raised in poverty after the death of his mother, and left school at a young age to work odd jobs. Despite his lack of formal education, he went on to become a prolific writer, publishing several novels, essays, poetry collections, and plays over the course of his career. Dahlberg was known for his complex, experimental writing style and his dark, introspective themes, often drawing from his own experiences of poverty, abuse, and isolation. He was also an outspoken critic of the literary establishment, frequently challenging the conventions of the mainstream literary scene. Today, Dahlberg is considered one of the most influential writers of the mid-20th century, and is celebrated for his unique voice and uncompromising vision.

Dahlberg was married three times during his lifetime, and had four children. He spent many years living in Paris and Rome, where he associated with other prominent writers and artists of the time, including Henry Miller and Anais Nin. Despite struggling with mental illness for much of his life, Dahlberg continued to write prolifically and receive critical acclaim for his work. His most notable works include the semi-autobiographical novel "Bottom Dogs," the poetry collection "Reasons of the Heart," and the play "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell." Dahlberg's legacy continues to inspire contemporary writers and readers, and his works remain relevant today for their challenging and thought-provoking themes.

In addition to his literary achievements, Dahlberg was also a talented visual artist, known for his drawings, watercolors, and collages. He often used his artwork to express his innermost thoughts and feelings, and considered it an important part of his creative process. Some of his artwork has been exhibited in galleries and museums, and is considered highly collectible. Despite his success as a writer and artist, Dahlberg remained a controversial figure throughout his life, often feuding with other writers and facing criticism for his sometimes abrasive personality. Nevertheless, his enduring contributions to literature and art have cemented his place as a key figure of 20th-century American culture.

Dahlberg's early writing career was marked by a series of rejections and struggles. It was not until the age of 47 that his first book, "From Flushing to Calvary," was published. This was followed by a string of successful works, including "The Flea of Sodom," "Because I Was Flesh," and "The Leafless American and Other Writings." His works often dealt with themes of existentialism, alienation, and the search for meaning in a chaotic world. He also wrote extensively about his experiences in World War II, which profoundly affected him and contributed to his already bleak worldview.

Dahlberg was a controversial figure in his personal life as well, with a reputation for being difficult and irascible. He was known to have feuds with fellow writers and critics, and was frequently paranoid and mistrustful of those around him. Despite this, he maintained close friendships with several writers, including Charles Bukowski and Harold Norse. In his later years, Dahlberg suffered from various health issues, including blindness and heart problems, but continued writing until his death in 1977.

Today, Dahlberg's works continue to inspire and challenge readers with their incisive critiques of society and piercing psychological introspection. His reputation as a literary outlaw and renegade has only grown over time, solidifying his place as a true American original.

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Washington Irving

Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 Manhattan-November 28, 1859 Sunnyside) also known as Diedrich Knickerbocker, Geoffrey Crayon, Jonathan Oldstyle or "The First American Man of Letters" was an American lawyer, writer and novelist.

He is best known for his short stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," which have become American classics. Irving was also one of the first American writers to gain international fame and played a significant role in establishing a distinct American literary voice in the 19th century. In addition to his writing, Irving was also a diplomat, serving as the U.S. ambassador to Spain from 1842 to 1846. He was a founding member of the Knickerbocker Club, a social organization that still exists today, and his home in Tarrytown, New York, called Sunnyside, is a popular tourist attraction. Irving's legacy continues to inspire and influence writers and readers around the world.

Irving's literary career began in earnest in 1802 when he contributed essays and letters to The Morning Chronicle. Later, he served as a law clerk in New York City before he was admitted to the bar in 1806. Irving's first major success as a writer came with the 1809 publication of A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, his satirical history of New York City that was published under the pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker.

In addition to his fiction, Irving's nonfiction works include The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. (1819-1820), which includes some of his most famous stories, such as "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," as well as his essays on American culture and society. Other notable works include Life of George Washington (1855-1859), a five-volume biography of the first U.S. president, and The Alhambra (1832), a travelogue about his time in Spain.

Irving's impact on American literature has been significant. His use of folklore and mythology set a precedent for later writers, and his work helped establish the short story as a distinct art form. Irving has been referred to as the "father of the American short story" and "the greatest American literary figure of his time." His legacy continues to inspire and influence writers and readers around the world.

In addition to his literary and diplomatic pursuits, Irving was also deeply interested in architecture and landscape design. He often collaborated with his friend, the architect A.J. Davis, on various projects, including the design of his home at Sunnyside. Irving's fascination with European culture and history also led him to visit England and continental Europe several times, and he became good friends with many notable figures of the time, including Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens. Despite his success and fame, Irving faced personal setbacks throughout his life, including the deaths of several family members and financial struggles. Nonetheless, he remained a beloved figure in American literature and culture, and his contributions to the development of American literature continue to be studied and celebrated today.

Throughout his life, Washington Irving was widely regarded as one of the most colorful and engaging personalities of his time. His wit, charm and storytelling abilities made him a sought-after companion among both social elites and literary circles. In addition to his literary and diplomatic pursuits, Irving was also a passionate collector of art and antiques, and his home at Sunnyside is filled with an eclectic mix of objects from his travels and personal collections.

Despite his success as a writer, Irving faced significant challenges and setbacks throughout his life. He struggled with depression and anxiety, and his financial situation was often precarious. However, he remained a resilient and determined figure, continuing to write and pursue his passions despite adversity.

Today, Irving's legacy continues to inspire and influence writers and readers around the world. His stories and essays remain popular and beloved, and his contributions to American literature are widely recognized as groundbreaking and significant. Irving's impact on American culture and society is an enduring one, and his influence can be seen in everything from literature to architecture to popular culture.

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John Updike

John Updike (March 18, 1932 Reading-January 27, 2009 Danvers) also known as John Hoyer Updike or Updike, John was an American writer, novelist, literary critic, art critic, poet, essayist, author and playwright. He had four children, Elizabeth Pennington Updike, David Hoyer Updike, Michael John Updike and Miranda Margaret Updike.

Updike is best known for his prolific literary career, spanning over six decades, during which he produced more than 50 books. He won two Pulitzer Prizes for his novels "Rabbit Is Rich" and "Rabbit at Rest." He also wrote a series of novels featuring the character Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom, which include "Rabbit, Run" and "Rabbit Redux." In addition to his novels, Updike also wrote essays, short stories, poetry, and children's books.

Updike attended Harvard University, where he studied English and served as the president of the Harvard Lampoon humor magazine. After graduating, he worked as a staff writer for The New Yorker, a position he held for over 20 years. His writing often explored themes of American life, suburbia, religion, and sex, and was known for its descriptive and lyrical prose.

In addition to his writing, Updike was also a noted art critic, with a particular interest in the work of the abstract expressionist painters. He served as a lecturer and writer-in-residence at a number of universities, including Harvard, Princeton, and Stanford. Throughout his career, Updike received numerous awards for his contributions to American letters, including the National Book Award and the National Humanities Medal.

Updike was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, and spent much of his childhood in the nearby town of Shillington. His father was a high school mathematics teacher, and his mother was a homemaker. Growing up, Updike was an avid reader and began writing for his high school newspaper. He went on to study at Harvard University on a full scholarship and graduated summa cum laude in 1954.

After leaving The New Yorker in 1982, Updike began teaching at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. He continued to publish novels, essays, and poetry throughout his career, earning critical and commercial success. Updike was known for his vivid descriptions of everyday life and his ability to capture the nuances of human experience. He was revered as one of the greatest writers of his generation and his works continue to be studied and celebrated today.

In addition to his writing, John Updike was also an accomplished painter and illustrator. His artwork was featured on the covers of many of his own books, as well as on the covers of other notable authors such as Vladimir Nabokov and William Faulkner. Updike's love of art also led him to serve as a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and he was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President George H.W. Bush in 1989.

Throughout his life, Updike was married twice. He married his first wife, Mary E. Pennington, in 1953, and they had four children together. The couple divorced in 1974, and Updike later married Martha Ruggles Bernhard in 1977. They remained married until his death in 2009.

John Updike's impact on American literature continues to be felt today, as scholars and readers alike admire his skillful prose, insightful observations, and unique perspective on American life. His legacy as one of the most important literary figures of the 20th century is secure, and his influence on the generations of writers who came after him is immeasurable.

In addition to his literary and artistic achievements, John Updike was also an avid golfer and incorporated the sport into some of his works, including his novel "Golf Dreams" and his collection of essays "Golf Dreams: Writings on Golf." He was a member of the famous Authors Guild, which is an organization that supports and advocates for writers in the United States. Updike was also a committed environmentalist and wrote about nature and the natural world in many of his works. He was particularly interested in birds and wrote a book called "The Bird Watcher," which is a collection of essays on bird watching. Updike's writing style was influenced by a number of other writers, including Marcel Proust, Henry James, and Saul Bellow. Despite being known for his literary successes, Updike was also open about his struggles with alcoholism and infidelity, both of which are recurring themes in his work. Overall, John Updike was a multi-talented and complex figure whose prolific output and insightful observations continue to resonate with readers and writers today.

He died in lung cancer.

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Kelly Miller

Kelly Miller (July 18, 1863 Winnsboro-December 29, 1939 Washington, D.C.) was an American mathematician, professor, author, newspaper and essayist.

Miller was the sixth of ten children born to a free black family in South Carolina. He graduated from Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1886 and later obtained a master's degree in mathematics from Johns Hopkins University. He became the first black man to attend the school and study under famed mathematician Thomas Craig.

Miller went on to become a professor of mathematics and dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Howard University. He was a prominent advocate for the civil rights of African Americans and wrote extensively on the subject. Some of his notable works include "Race Adjustment," "Out of the House of Bondage," and "My Race Problem."

Miller was also a regular contributor to newspapers and a sought-after public speaker. He spoke at events such as the National Negro Business League's annual conference and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) annual meeting.

Miller was a member of several professional organizations, including the American Mathematical Society and the Société Mathématique de France. In recognition of his contributions to mathematics and civil rights activism, the Kelly Miller Mathematics and Science Magnet School in Maryland is named after him.

Miller was a true pioneer of his time and served as an inspiration to many African Americans who followed in his footsteps. In addition to his work as an educator and civil rights activist, Miller was a strong believer in the importance of economic self-sufficiency for African Americans. He was a founder of the Colored Industrial and Agricultural School in Oklahoma, which aimed to promote vocational education and training for African Americans in the state. Miller was also a proponent of Pan-Africanism, the idea that people of African descent around the world should work together to advance their common interests. He attended the first Pan-African Conference in London in 1900 and remained involved in the movement throughout his career. Despite facing discrimination and obstacles throughout his life, Miller persevered and left a lasting impact on American society.

Throughout his life, Kelly Miller was a true inspiration to many African Americans due to his pioneering work as an educator, professor, civil rights activist, and writer. He is known for his contributions to mathematics and the promotion of vocational education and training among African Americans. Miller was a firm believer in self-sufficiency, and he worked tirelessly to promote economic independence among his fellow African Americans.

Aside from his work as an educator and civil rights activist, Miller was also a dedicated writer who extensively covered racial topics. In his works, he shed light on the inequalities that African Americans faced in the United States and advocated for the creation of a fairer and more equitable society. His writings earned him widespread recognition, and he was often invited to speak at major events, including the National Negro Business League's annual conference and the NAACP annual meeting.

During his lifetime, Miller remained committed to the idea of Pan-Africanism, which sought to encourage people of African descent to work together for the advancement of their common interests. He attended the first Pan-African Conference in London in 1900 and remained an active member of the movement throughout his career.

Despite facing significant obstacles and discrimination throughout his life, Kelly Miller remained steadfast in his commitment to advancing the rights and interests of African Americans. His tireless efforts to promote education, civil rights, and economic independence have earned him a place in history as one of the most important figures of his time.

In addition to his various accomplishments, Kelly Miller was also an accomplished musician. He was a skilled violinist and participated in the Howard University orchestra during his time there. Miller was also an advocate for the arts and believed that it was important for African Americans to have access to cultural opportunities. He argued that exposure to the arts and culture could help to uplift and empower members of the community. Miller's dedication to promoting cultural enrichment was reflected in his support of the National Association of Negro Musicians (NANM), an organization that aimed to support and promote the work of African American musicians. As someone who was known for his dedication to education, civil rights, and social justice, Miller's commitment to the arts was yet another example of his multifaceted contributions to American society.

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Charlotte Forten Grimké

Charlotte Forten Grimké (August 17, 1837 Philadelphia-July 23, 1914) also known as Charlotte Forten Grimke or Charlotte Forten was an American writer.

She was born into a free black family in Philadelphia and was raised in a household that valued education and social justice. Her grandfather was a prominent abolitionist and her family was active in the Underground Railroad.

After graduating from Salem Normal School in Massachusetts, Forten became the first black teacher to be hired in Salem’s public school system. She later taught at a school for freed slaves on St. Helena Island, South Carolina during the Civil War.

Forten’s writing mainly consists of diaries, letters, and essays highlighting the struggles and injustices faced by African Americans during Reconstruction. She was also a contributor to anti-slavery newspapers and women’s rights publications.

Her work and activism inspire many and she remains an important figure in the history of Civil Rights and Education.

After her time teaching in South Carolina, Charlotte Forten Grimké returned to the North and became involved in the suffrage movement, advocating for women's right to vote. She also married the Reverend Francis J. Grimké, who was a prominent civil rights leader and pastor in Washington, D.C. As a couple, they worked together to promote equality and justice for all, regardless of race or gender.

Forten Grimké continued to write throughout her life and her work was published in various magazines and anthologies. She also maintained a lifelong interest in music and poetry, and was known for her beautiful singing voice. In addition, she was a member of several women's clubs and organizations, including the National Association of Colored Women and the Women's Christian Temperance Union.

Despite facing many challenges and obstacles as a woman and a person of color in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Charlotte Forten Grimké remained steadfast in her commitment to justice and equality. Her legacy lives on as an inspiration to future generations of activists and writers.

Forten Grimké's writings were not only focused on the struggles of African Americans during Reconstruction but also on the beauty of African American culture and the need for broader cultural awareness. Her collection of poetry, "Moorings and Metaphors," was published posthumously in 1991 and is considered to be a significant contribution to African American literature. In addition to her writing and activism, Forten Grimké was also an accomplished artist, with her paintings and sketches frequently appearing in African American publications of the time. Her art was often inspired by her travels and experiences, including her time teaching on St. Helena Island. Forten Grimké's life and work embody the courage and perseverance of those who strive for justice and equality, and she remains a powerful voice for social change to this day.

In addition to her artistic, literary, and activist pursuits, Charlotte Forten Grimké was also an advocate for improved healthcare and sanitation for African Americans. She worked as a nurse during the Civil War and saw firsthand the poor conditions and lack of medical care for freed slaves. Later on, she became involved in the public health movement, advocating for better living conditions and access to medical care for all. Additionally, Forten Grimké was a supporter of vocational education, recognizing the importance of job training and skill-building for African Americans to secure economic independence and self-sufficiency. Her life and work showcase the multifaceted nature of social justice activism and the intersectionality of various social issues. Forten Grimké's impact continues to be felt in various realms of American society and her contributions to history have been recognized through various honors and awards, including induction into the National Women's Hall of Fame.

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William Crary Brownell

William Crary Brownell (August 30, 1851-July 22, 1928) was an American personality.

He was primarily known for his work as an art and literary critic, with a focus on the realism and naturalism movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Brownell wrote for a number of prominent publications, including The Nation and Scribner's Magazine, where he also served as an editor. He was a respected commentator on the work of writers such as Henry James and Edith Wharton, as well as artists such as Winslow Homer and James McNeill Whistler. Brownell was also a prolific author in his own right, publishing works such as "The French Renaissance in England" and "Victorian Prose Masters." In addition to his contributions to literature and the arts, Brownell was involved in politics, serving as a delegate to the 1900 Republican National Convention.

Brownell was born in New York City, the son of a wealthy merchant. His family had significant cultural and social connections, and he was exposed to the arts and literature from a young age. He attended Yale University, where he studied with renowned American literary critic William Dean Howells. After graduating in 1872, Brownell spent a year in Europe before returning to New York City to begin his career as a writer and critic.

Throughout his career, Brownell was known for his keen insights and his ability to identify important trends in literature and the arts. He was an early champion of realism and naturalism, and he helped to popularize these movements in the United States. He was also an advocate for the work of American artists, and he played a significant role in promoting their work both at home and abroad.

In addition to his writing, Brownell was also a popular lecturer and speaker. He was a regular contributor to the New York Public Library's popular lecture series, and he was in demand as a speaker at literary and cultural events across the country.

Despite his many accomplishments, Brownell's reputation suffered in later years due to his conservative political views. He was a staunch supporter of American imperialism and an opponent of progressive reform movements, and his views were increasingly out of step with the changing political climate of the early 20th century. Nevertheless, his contributions to American literature and the arts remain significant, and he is remembered as a pioneering critic and commentator.

Brownell was married to Alice Brownell, a prominent suffragist and social reformer who was active in the women's rights movement. The couple had four children together. Despite their political differences, Brownell was deeply devoted to his wife and admired her work on behalf of women's rights. In fact, he often used his public platform to advocate for women's suffrage, believing that it was essential for the progress of American society.Brownell's legacy continues to resonate in the world of literature and the arts. His writings on the realism and naturalism movements, as well as his commentary on individual artists and writers, remain valuable resources for scholars and enthusiasts alike. His contributions helped to broaden the scope of American art and literature and to establish the United States as a major cultural force on the world stage.

Brownell's influence extended beyond his own time, as his ideas and criticisms continued to shape the way that subsequent generations of writers and artists approached their work. His advocacy for American artists and writers helped to create a sense of cultural pride and identity that continues to resonate today.

Despite his many achievements, Brownell was also known for his personal eccentricities, which included a preference for wearing a monocle and a distinctive style of facial hair known as a "Vandyke." He was also described as being fastidious and meticulous in his dress and appearance.

In addition to his work as a critic and writer, Brownell was also involved in a number of philanthropic and cultural initiatives. He served on the boards of several prominent cultural institutions, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the American Academy in Rome. He was also a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, and he played an important role in shaping the cultural policies of his time.

Today, Brownell is remembered as one of the most important literary and cultural critics of his era. His pioneering work helped to shape the way that Americans thought about literature and the arts, and his advocacy for realism and naturalism helped to establish the United States as a major cultural force in the world. His legacy continues to inspire and inform scholars, artists, and writers around the world.

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Theodore Salisbury Woolsey

Theodore Salisbury Woolsey (October 22, 1852 New Haven-April 24, 1929) was an American personality.

He was a professor of Greek at Yale University for over four decades and served as the University's President from 1886 to 1899. He was renowned for his expertise in the field of Greek literature and for his guidance of the classics department during his tenure as President of Yale. In addition to teaching, Woolsey authored numerous publications on Greek literature and culture, including several translations of ancient Greek texts. He was also an influential figure in the American Philological Association, serving as its president in 1902. Despite his notable achievements, Woolsey's personal life was marked by tragedy: several of his children died young, and his second wife passed away in 1898. Nevertheless, he remained a respected member of the Yale community until his death in 1929.

Throughout his distinguished career, Woolsey made significant contributions to the field of classical studies in the United States. He was instrumental in establishing the Yale School of Fine Arts, and he played a leading role in the creation of the Yale University Press. In addition to his scholarly work, Woolsey was known for his wit and humor, and he was a popular lecturer who was highly esteemed by both students and colleagues. He was also deeply involved in the religious and social life of his community, and he served on the board of several charitable organizations. Despite facing difficult personal challenges, Woolsey was a dedicated educator and scholar who left a lasting impact on the study of classical languages and literature in the United States.

Woolsey was born into a prominent family in New Haven, Connecticut. His father, Theodore Dwight Woolsey, was a former President of Yale University, and his mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of Benjamin Silliman, a renowned chemist and founding professor at Yale. Woolsey was educated at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, and he later attended Yale College, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1872. Following his graduation, Woolsey studied at the University of Leipzig in Germany, where he became fluent in German and furthered his knowledge of Greek literature.

Upon his return to the United States, Woolsey joined the faculty of Yale University as an instructor of Greek. He quickly distinguished himself as a scholar and teacher, and he was appointed as a full professor in 1880. Six years later, he was chosen to succeed his father as President of Yale, a position he held until 1899. During his tenure, Woolsey oversaw a period of significant expansion and modernization at the University, including the establishment of new departments and the construction of new buildings.

In addition to his academic and administrative duties, Woolsey was actively involved in the political and social issues of his time. He was a strong advocate for women's education and suffrage, and he supported various progressive causes, such as the temperance movement and the creation of social welfare programs. He was also a vocal opponent of imperialism and advocated for a more democratic approach to international relations.

Woolsey's legacy at Yale and in the field of classical studies is still felt today. His commitment to scholarly excellence and his dedication to the principles of liberal education inspired generations of students and scholars, and his work helped to establish the foundations of classical studies in the United States.

Woolsey was also deeply involved in the religious life of Yale and the broader community. He served as a deacon at the Center Church on the Green in New Haven, and he was a member of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. He was committed to promoting interfaith dialogue and understanding, and he worked to foster greater cooperation between Protestant and Catholic churches in America.

In recognition of his many contributions to Yale and the world of classical studies, Woolsey received numerous honors and awards throughout his life. In 1893, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Edinburgh, and he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1903. He received many other honorary degrees from institutions in the United States and Europe.

After retiring from the presidency of Yale in 1899, Woolsey continued to teach and write until his death in 1929. He remained deeply committed to the study of classical literature and culture, and his love for the classics inspired generations of students and scholars. Today, he is remembered as one of the most important figures in the history of Yale and the study of classical studies in the United States.

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Jack Kirby

Jack Kirby (August 28, 1917 New York City-February 6, 1994 Thousand Oaks) also known as The King, Jacob Kurtzberg, Jack 'King' Kirby, Jack 'The King' Kirby, Teddy, Charles Nicholas, Lance Kirby, Fred Sande, Ted Grey, Curt Davis or Jack Curtiss was an American writer, cartoonist, artist, editor, inker, screenwriter and visual artist. He had four children, Susan M. Kirby, Neal L. Kirby, Lisa R. Kirby and Barbara J. Kirby.

Kirby is widely considered as one of the most influential comic book creators in the industry. He co-created many popular superheroes such as Captain America, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Hulk, and the Avengers. He also created the Fourth World saga which featured characters like Darkseid and Mister Miracle. His art style was known for its dynamism, exaggerated muscles, and larger-than-life characters. Kirby was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1987 and posthumously inducted into the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1995. He is remembered for his immense contribution to the comic book industry and his lasting impact on popular culture.

Kirby was born to immigrant parents from Austria and grew up in poverty. He began his career at the age of 18 as a freelance artist for various comic book publishers. He then worked for Marvel Comics (formerly known as Timely Comics) and later for DC Comics. Kirby's influence on comics extended beyond his creative works. He fought for creators' rights and helped establish the Comic Book Creators Guild, which aimed to protect the rights of comic book creators. Kirby's legacy continues to inspire new generations of comic book artists and fans. In 2019, a street in his hometown of New York City was named after him, the "Jack Kirby Way".

Kirby was a prolific creator, having worked on hundreds of comic book titles throughout his career. He was known for his fast-paced work ethic and ability to churn out high-quality artwork in a short period of time. In addition to his superhero creations, Kirby also worked on science fiction, horror, and war comics.

Despite his immense popularity and influence in the industry, Kirby often struggled to receive the recognition and compensation he deserved. He and fellow comic book creator, Stan Lee, had a complex and sometimes contentious relationship, with Kirby feeling that Lee took credit for many of his ideas.

Kirby's impact on popular culture extends beyond the comic book industry. His characters have been adapted into blockbuster movies, TV shows, and video games, and his art style has influenced countless artists and designers.

In his later years, Kirby continued to work on his own creator-owned projects, including the critically acclaimed "The Hunger Dogs" graphic novel. He passed away at the age of 76, leaving behind a legacy that continues to shape the comic book industry to this day.

Kirby's talent and passion for comics were evident from a young age. As a child, he would often draw cartoons for his classmates and show them off in school. He would later credit his love for comics to the power of storytelling and the way it allowed him to escape the hardships of his early life.

Kirby's work had a profound impact on the development of the superhero genre, revolutionizing comics with his groundbreaking creations. He breathed new life into the medium with his bold, dynamic style and larger-than-life characters. His artwork was characterized by powerful figures with exaggerated muscles and deep, expressive lines.

Despite facing numerous challenges throughout his career, including censorship and industry politics, Kirby remained dedicated to his craft and never lost his love for comics. He continued to work on new projects and inspire countless artists and fans until his passing in 1994.

Today, Kirby is remembered as a pioneer in his field and a true legend of the comic book industry. His influence on popular culture and the development of the superhero genre cannot be overstated, and his legacy continues to inspire and captivate new generations of comic book enthusiasts around the world.

He died in heart failure.

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Charles Nelson Reilly

Charles Nelson Reilly (January 13, 1931 South Bronx-May 25, 2007 Beverly Hills) otherwise known as Charles Nelson-Reilly, CNR or Chuck was an American comedian, actor, film director, voice actor, teacher, theatre director and television director.

He was born into an Irish Catholic family and raised in the Bronx. Reilly started his career in theater, working in various productions on and off-Broadway. He was also known for his appearances on television game shows, including "Match Game" and "The Hollywood Squares". In addition to his work in comedy and acting, Reilly also directed several successful plays on and off-Broadway. Reilly was openly gay and often used his sexuality as a source of humor in his work. He received a Drama Desk Award and a Tony Award nomination for his role in the Broadway play "How To Succeed In Business Without Really Trying". Reilly's career in entertainment spanned several decades and he remained active in the industry until his death in 2007.

Reilly was known for his distinctive voice and appeared in numerous animated television shows, providing the voice for characters in popular children's programs such as "Scooby-Doo" and "The Smurfs". He also lent his talents as a voice actor to more adult-oriented shows, such as "Batman: The Animated Series" and "Family Guy". Reilly was not only successful on the stage and in television, but also found success as a film director. He directed the comedy film "The Belle of Amherst" and the documentary "The Life of Reilly", which chronicled his own life and career. In addition to his work in entertainment, Reilly was a respected teacher of drama and served as a faculty member at several well-known institutions such as the HB Studio in New York City. Despite his immense talent and accomplishments, Reilly remained humble and was regarded as a kind and generous person in the entertainment industry.

Reilly got his start in theater at a young age, attending the Hartford's Bushnell Theater as a child. He went on to study drama at the University of Hartford before moving to New York City to pursue a career in theater. Some of his notable Broadway appearances include "Hello, Dolly!", "Bye Bye Birdie", and "Skyscraper". In addition to his television game show appearances, Reilly was a frequent guest on talk shows such as "The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson" and "The Late Show with David Letterman". He was known for his eccentric personality and flamboyant style, often wearing brightly colored clothing and oversized glasses. Despite facing discrimination as a gay man during the height of his career, Reilly remained a popular figure in the entertainment industry and was beloved by fans for his comedic timing and endearing personality.

Reilly's work as a director extended beyond the stage and screen. He was also a sought-after director of commercials, working for major brands such as Tide, Kraft Foods, and McDonald's. He even directed several public service announcements for organizations such as the American Cancer Society and the Partnership for a Drug-Free America. Reilly also wrote his own one-man shows, including "Save It for the Stage: The Life of Reilly", which he later adapted into a film.

In addition to his artistic talents, Reilly was also a philanthropist and supporter of charitable organizations. He was actively involved with the AIDS Project Los Angeles and The Thalians, a charitable organization dedicated to mental health issues. Reilly was also a founding member of the Advocate Experience, a group of prominent gay individuals who worked to increase visibility and acceptance for the LGBTQ+ community.

Reilly's legacy continues to be celebrated by fans and colleagues in the entertainment industry. In 2018, a documentary titled "The Life and Times of Charles Nelson Reilly" was released, featuring interviews with his peers and archival footage of his performances. Reilly is remembered as a comedic genius, a talented director and voice actor, and a trailblazer for LGBTQ+ representation in the entertainment industry.

He died in pneumonia.

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Marshall Rosenbluth

Marshall Rosenbluth (February 5, 1927 Albany-September 28, 2003 San Diego) was an American physicist and scientist.

He received his undergraduate degree in physics from the University of California, Berkeley and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Rosenbluth was known for his work in plasma physics, particularly for his contributions to computer simulation techniques. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and won numerous awards for his scientific contributions, including the Enrico Fermi Award in 1987. In addition to his scientific accomplishments, Rosenbluth was also an advocate for science education and served on various committees in support of science education initiatives.

After completing his Ph.D., Rosenbluth worked at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in New Mexico for nearly twenty years. During this time, he collaborated with other physicists to devise numerical techniques for simulating the behavior of plasma, the hot, ionized gas that makes up most of the universe. His work contributed to the development of the field of plasma physics, which has had many practical applications in fields like nuclear fusion, astrophysics, and materials science.

Rosenbluth also worked on the problem of nuclear fusion, the same process that powers the sun, as a source of energy for humanity. He was involved in the design of a prototype fusion reactor, called the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, and served on several advisory committees for fusion research.

In addition to his scientific work, Rosenbluth was interested in promoting peaceful uses of technology. In 1973, he co-founded the Union of Concerned Scientists, a non-profit organization dedicated to addressing social and environmental problems through scientific analysis and political advocacy.

Rosenbluth died in San Diego in 2003, leaving behind a legacy of important contributions to plasma physics and nuclear fusion research, as well as a commitment to using science for the benefit of society.

Rosenbluth's work on plasma and fusion physics has been remarkable, and he was instrumental in developing the technique of particle simulation, which revolutionized the field. His research, combined with the work of other physicists and engineers, has led to the development of new technologies such as plasma-based lighting, advanced medical treatments, and high-speed computer circuitry. Besides, he was known for his work with democratic initiatives and was the co-founder of a local chapter of the Democratic Party, he also served as an advisor to the National Security Agency during the Cold War. Rosenbluth was a prolific writer and published numerous scientific papers on plasma physics and other topics. He was also active in his community, volunteering as a coach for youth sports teams and participating in local environmental organizations. His wife, Sarah, was also a renowned physicist and the two of them were known for their scientific collaboration and activism. Rosenbluth was a true pioneer in the field of plasma physics, and his contributions to science will always be remembered.

One of Rosenbluth's most significant contributions to plasma physics was his development of the famous Rosenbluth formula, which helps to model the diffusion of ions through a plasma. This formula has become a cornerstone of plasma physics research and has been applied in numerous different contexts, from materials science to astrophysics. Rosenbluth was also a strong advocate for the use of high-performance computing in scientific research, recognizing early on that computer simulations would be critical to advancing the field of plasma physics. He played an important role in the establishment of several computer centers, including the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California, San Diego. In recognition of his seminal work in plasma physics, Rosenbluth received numerous awards over the course of his career. In addition to the Enrico Fermi Award, he was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1986 and the Presidential Award of Merit in 1995. Despite his many accolades and accomplishments, Rosenbluth remained committed to his goal of using science and technology to improve society. He believed that scientists had a responsibility to use their knowledge and expertise to address social and environmental concerns, and he worked tirelessly to promote this vision throughout his life.

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Julian Schwinger

Julian Schwinger (February 12, 1918 New York City-July 16, 1994 Los Angeles) also known as Julian Seymour Schwinger was an American physicist and theoretical physicist.

He is best known for his work in the development of the theory of quantum electrodynamics, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965, alongside Richard Feynman and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga. Schwinger was a professor of physics at Harvard University and later at the University of California, Los Angeles. Throughout his career, he made significant contributions to the fields of quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and particle physics. In addition to his scientific achievements, Schwinger was known for his commitment to social justice and civil rights activism. He was a vocal critic of the Vietnam War and served as the president of the American Association of Physics Teachers. Schwinger was also an accomplished pianist and was known to incorporate music into his teaching and lectures.

Schwinger began his academic career at the age of 16 when he enrolled at City College of New York. He then went on to earn a PhD in physics from Columbia University before joining the faculty at Harvard. During World War II, he worked on the Manhattan Project at the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Apart from his Nobel Prize, Schwinger received numerous other awards and honors throughout his career, including the National Medal of Science and the Albert Einstein Award.

Schwinger's contributions to science were not limited to his academic work. He was also a prolific writer who authored several books, including "Particles and Sources" and "Quantum Mechanics." He was a mentor to several generations of physicists and his work continues to be influential in the field today.

Schwinger passed away in 1994 due to pancreatic cancer but his legacy continues to inspire and inform scientific research around the world.

During his career, Schwinger was known for his ability to simplify complex theories and make them accessible to a wider audience. He was also an influential figure in the development of the renormalization method in quantum electrodynamics, which helped to solve many of the mathematical problems that had previously hindered progress in the field. Schwinger also contributed to the development of the theory of strong interactions, which seeks to explain the behavior of quarks and other subatomic particles.

In addition to his scientific work, Schwinger was involved in numerous political and social causes. He was an advocate for nuclear disarmament and worked with the Union of Concerned Scientists to raise awareness about the dangers of nuclear weapons. He also supported the civil rights movement and was a vocal critic of racism and discrimination in all forms.

Schwinger's impact on the field of physics was significant and enduring. His work helped to lay the foundation for modern particle physics and his contributions to the field of quantum electrodynamics continue to influence scientific research today. His dedication to social justice and civil rights activism also served as an inspiration to many within the scientific community and beyond.

Schwinger's interest in music was not just limited to incorporating it into his teaching and lectures. He was also an accomplished pianist and held a lifelong passion for music. In fact, he considered pursuing a career in music before eventually deciding to focus on physics. Schwinger often used music as an analogy to explain complex concepts in physics and believed that the beauty of music and the elegance of physics were closely interconnected.

In addition to his scientific and social contributions, Schwinger was known for his humility and integrity. He was a kind and generous mentor who always put the interests of his students and colleagues first. Many of his students went on to become leading physicists in their own right, and they often credited Schwinger for his guidance and inspiration. Schwinger remained active in his work until the end of his life and continued to publish papers and attend conferences despite his illness. His dedication to science and his unwavering commitment to social justice serve as a testament to his enduring legacy.

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Seymour Ginsburg

Seymour Ginsburg (December 12, 1927 Brooklyn-December 5, 2004) was an American computer scientist.

He is best known for his work in the field of automata theory, contributing significantly to the areas of formal languages, parsing, and algorithmic learning. Ginsburg earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in mathematics from Brooklyn College and his Ph.D. in mathematics from Syracuse University. He joined the faculty at the University of Southern California in 1954 and remained there until his retirement in 1991. During his career, he was awarded several honors, including the Harry H. Goode Memorial Award in 1981, the IEEE Computer Society Pioneer Award in 1990, and the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science in 2002. Ginsburg was also a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Association for Computing Machinery. He is remembered as a pioneer of theoretical computer science and an influential figure in the development of several foundational concepts in the field.

Ginsburg's contributions to automata theory are numerous. He co-authored one of the earliest textbooks on the subject, titled "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems," which became a seminal work in the field. He also helped develop the concept of context-free grammars and pushdown automata, which are still widely used in computer science today. In addition to his work in automata theory, Ginsburg was also involved in algorithmic learning, developing algorithms to automatically infer grammars from sample data. His work in this area paved the way for the development of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Beyond his academic achievements, Ginsburg was known for his warmth and generosity. He was deeply committed to creating an inclusive and supportive environment for students and colleagues alike. His dedication to teaching and mentoring earned him the USC Associates Award for Excellence in Teaching in 1975. Ginsburg passed away in 2004 at the age of 76, leaving behind a legacy of groundbreaking research and intellectual leadership in theoretical computer science.

In addition to his research and teaching, Seymour Ginsburg was also a prolific writer. He authored or co-authored several books on computer science, including "The Mathematical Theory of Context-Free Languages," "Introduction to Mathematical Machine Theory," and "An Introduction to the Theory of Formal Languages and Automata." He also served as the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Computer and System Sciences from 1979 to 1997. Outside of academia, Ginsburg was an avid traveler, visiting countries all over the world and documenting his experiences through photography. He was also a devoted family man and is survived by his wife, three children, and several grandchildren. His contributions to computer science continue to influence the field, and his legacy lives on through the many students and collaborators he mentored throughout his career.

Ginsburg's impact on computer science can also be seen through his service to prestigious organizations in the field. He was an active member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and served as the president of its Computer Society in 1974. Additionally, he was a member of the American Mathematical Society, the Mathematical Association of America, and the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Ginsburg's research was not limited to automata theory and algorithmic learning. He also made significant contributions to the field of database theory, working on the theory of semantic data models and the integration of databases. His work in this area laid the foundation for research on deductive databases and automated reasoning in databases.

Throughout his career, Ginsburg mentored numerous students and collaborators who went on to become prominent figures in computer science themselves. His dedication to mentoring and fostering a collaborative environment led to the establishment of the Seymour Ginsburg Memorial Lecture Series at the University of Southern California, which brings in leading researchers to present on current topics in computer science.

The contributions of Seymour Ginsburg to the field of theoretical computer science have had a lasting impact on the development of foundational concepts that are still used in computer science today. His legacy continues to inspire generations of researchers to push the boundaries of what is possible in the field.

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T. S. Eliot

T. S. Eliot (September 26, 1888 St. Louis-January 4, 1965 Kensington) a.k.a. Thomas Stearns Eliot, T.S. Eliot, Eliot, Thomas Stearns or Tom was an American writer, playwright, poet, literary critic and lyricist.

His albums include , , and .

He died caused by emphysema.

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Jack Lemmon

Jack Lemmon (February 8, 1925 Newton-June 27, 2001 Los Angeles) also known as John Uhler Lemmon III, John Uhler "Jack" Lemmon III or Jack was an American musician, actor and film producer. His children are Chris Lemmon and Courtney Lemmon.

His albums include A Twist of Lemmon / "Some Like It Hot" and Jack Lemmon Tells the Musical Tale of Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf.

He died as a result of bladder cancer.

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Amy Marcy Cheney Beach

Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (September 5, 1867 Henniker-January 27, 1944 New York City) also known as Amy Beach, Amy Beach (1867-1944), Mrs. H.H.A. Beach or Beach, Amy Marcy Cheney was an American composer and pianist.

Her albums include Gaelic" Symphony / Piano Concerto, Piano Quintet - Theme and Variations - Trio (The Ambache) and Barber: Symphony No. 1 / The School for Scandal Overture / Beach: Symphony in E minor (Gaelic). Genres: Classical music, Romantic music and Opera.

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Link Wray

Link Wray (May 2, 1929 Dunn-November 5, 2005 Copenhagen) also known as Fred Lincoln "Link" Wray Jr or Fred Lincoln Wray Jr. was an American musician, songwriter and guitarist.

His most recognized albums: The Original Rumble Plus 22 Other Storming Guitar Instrumentals, Live in '85 / Growling Guitar, Rumble! The Best of Link Wray, Guitar Preacher: The Polydor Years, Barbed Wire, Wray's Three Track Shack, Apache, Missing Links, Volume 2: Big City After Dark, Bullshot and Guitar Legends. Genres related to him: Rock music, Hard rock, Surf music, Rockabilly, Country, Instrumental rock, Roots rock, Rock and roll and Protopunk.

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C. L. Moore

C. L. Moore (January 24, 1911 Indianapolis-April 4, 1987 Hollywood) a.k.a. Catherine Lucille Moore, C. H. Liddell, Catherine L. Moore, Lawrence O'Donnell or Lewis Padgett was an American author, writer and novelist.

C.L. Moore was primarily known for her contributions to the science fiction and fantasy genres. She frequently collaborated with other writers and her husband Henry Kuttner, with whom she co-wrote several stories and novels under the pen name Lewis Padgett. Moore's most famous works include "Judgment Night," "Shambleau" and "The Bright Illusion." Her tales often featured strong, independent and complex female characters, which was a rarity in that era of science fiction. In addition to her writing, Moore was a member of the Futurians, a New York-based group of science fiction fans and writers, and was one of the first women to receive the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement.

Moore's interest in writing began at a young age, and she went on to attend Indiana University where she studied education and journalism. After graduating, she worked as a secretary and a teacher. However, it was not until she began submitting her stories to pulp magazines that her writing career really took off. She quickly became a regular contributor to Weird Tales, one of the most influential pulp magazines of the time.

Moore's skillful and imaginative storytelling brought her critical acclaim and a loyal following. Her characters, both male and female, were multidimensional and highly relatable, and her settings were richly detailed and vividly portrayed. She was a master of the short story form and her work has been highly influential in the science fiction and fantasy genres.

In addition to her contributions as a writer, Moore was also a trailblazer for women in science fiction. She was one of the few female writers working in the genre during the 1930s and 1940s, and her work helped pave the way for future generations of female science fiction writers.

Throughout her career, Moore continued to push the boundaries of science fiction and fantasy, and her work has inspired countless other writers in the genre. Her legacy as a writer and a trailblazer will continue to reverberate for generations to come.

Moore's impact on the science fiction and fantasy genres continued long after her death, and her work has been the subject of numerous critical studies and anthologies. In 2017, a collection of her short stories titled "The Best of C.L. Moore" was published, which included some of her most celebrated works as well as lesser-known pieces from throughout her career. In addition, Moore was inducted into the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame in 1998, a testament to her enduring legacy in the field. Today, Moore is remembered not only as a talented writer, but also as a pioneering figure who helped shape the genre and paved the way for future generations of writers.

Moore's influence on the science fiction and fantasy genres extended beyond her writing and advocacy for women writers in those fields. She also had a significant impact on the visual art associated with those genres. Her vivid descriptions of other worlds and creatures, as well as her female characters who were both beautiful and dangerous, inspired many illustrators and artists. Some of the most notable examples of her impact on visual art can be seen in the work of artists like Virgil Finlay and Margaret Brundage, who created illustrations for the pulp magazines that featured Moore's stories. Moore's work continues to inspire and captivate readers and fans around the world, and she remains a beloved figure in science fiction and fantasy literature.

She died caused by alzheimer's disease.

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Donald A. Wollheim

Donald A. Wollheim (October 1, 1914 New York City-November 2, 1990 New York City) also known as Allen Warland, D. A. W., David Grinnell, Don Wollheim, Donald Allen Wollheim, Donald Wollheim, Lawrence Woods, Martin Barrow, Martin Pearson, Millard V. Gordon, Millard Verne Gordon, W. Malcolm White, Anonymous or DAW was an American novelist, writer, editor and author.

He was a prominent figure in the science fiction and fantasy publishing industry, having co-founded the publishing house DAW Books in 1971. Prior to that, he had worked as an editor at several publishing houses such as Ace Books and Avon Books, and helped introduce many new writers to the field of science fiction and fantasy.

Wollheim was also a prolific writer himself, publishing over 40 novels and numerous short stories under various pseudonyms. He wrote in several different genres, including science fiction, fantasy, and mystery, and was known for his creative world-building and complex plots.

In addition to his work in publishing and writing, Wollheim was also a founding member of the Futurians, a prominent science fiction fan group in New York City in the 1930s and 1940s. He remained active in the science fiction community throughout his career, and was a recipient of several awards and honors for his contributions to the genre.

Wollheim was born in New York City and attended New York University, studying engineering. However, he dropped out of college to pursue a career in publishing, first working at a literary agency before moving onto Ace Books in 1946. At Ace, he edited the works of some of the most prominent science fiction writers of the time, including Isaac Asimov, Ray Bradbury, and Robert Heinlein. Wollheim was known for his willingness to take risks on new and unconventional authors, and he helped to launch the careers of many well-known writers in the genre.

In 1952, Wollheim joined Avon Books as an editor and continued to work there until 1959. During his time at Avon, he published iconic works of science fiction such as Arthur C. Clarke's "Childhood's End" and Alfred Bester's "The Demolished Man".

As a writer, Wollheim wrote several novels under pseudonyms, including "World Without End" under the name Martin Pearson and "The Secret of Saturn's Rings" under the name David Grinnell. He also wrote a series of science fiction novels featuring the character David M. Grinnell, which were published under his own name.

Wollheim's impact on the science fiction and fantasy publishing industry was significant and enduring. His legacy continues through DAW Books, which remains one of the most prominent publishers of science fiction and fantasy to this day.

In addition to his work in publishing, Wollheim was also an active member of various science fiction organizations. He was a founder and officer of the Science Fiction Writers of America (SFWA) and was inducted into the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame in 2002. His contributions to the genre were recognized with the World Fantasy Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1975, and the Hugo Award for Best Professional Editor in 1980. Wollheim was also known for his advocacy for fair treatment and payment for writers, and he praised the efforts of the SFWA in supporting writers' rights. He continued to write and edit until shortly before his death in 1990, leaving behind a vast legacy in the field of science fiction and fantasy.

Wollheim was also an advocate for science fiction and its recognition as a serious literary genre. In 1953, he organized the first World Science Fiction Convention in New York City, bringing together science fiction writers, editors, and fans from around the world. He also urged science fiction writers to focus more on character development and social commentary in their work, and to move away from the pulpy and formulaic stories that had dominated the genre in the past.

Wollheim's contributions to science fiction and fantasy publishing and writing were unparalleled. He helped to shape the genre into what it is today, introducing countless new voices and ideas to readers around the world. His legacy continues to inspire and influence writers, editors, and fans alike.

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Edward Kasner

Edward Kasner (April 2, 1878 New York City-January 7, 1955 New York City) was an American mathematician and scientist.

He obtained his Bachelor's degree from City College of New York in 1898 and his Master's degree from Columbia University in 1900. Kasner is known for his work on introducing the concept of a googol, which is a number representing 10 to the power of 100. He also popularized the term "googolplex" which is 10 to the power of a googol. Kasner co-authored the book "Mathematics and the Imagination" with James Newman, which explores the beauty and wonder of mathematics. Additionally, he was a professor at the University of Columbia and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

During World War I, Kasner served as a captain in the United States Army Signal Corps, where he worked on developing technology for detecting submarines. He also worked on mathematics related to ballistics and the motion of projectiles. Later in his career, Kasner was involved in the Manhattan Project, which developed the first atomic bomb during World War II.

Kasner was a founding member of the Mathematical Association of America and served as its president from 1929 to 1930. In addition to his work in mathematics and science, Kasner was interested in literature and wrote several books on popular science, including "The Universe and Dr. Einstein" and "Of Men and Numbers."

Kasner's work on introducing the concept of a googol has had a lasting impact on popular culture. The Google search engine was named after the term, and the company's headquarters is known as the Googleplex, a play on the term "googolplex" that Kasner popularized.

Kasner was also known for his contributions to complex analysis and cohomology theory. He was a member of several professional societies and received numerous honors for his work, including the Franklin Medal in 1948. Kasner was married to a fellow mathematician, Florence Louise Briggs, with whom he collaborated on some of his research projects. They had two children together, one of whom, Anne Kasner, became a well-known artist. Kasner's legacy continues to inspire and influence mathematicians and scientists around the world, and his pioneering work on the googol has left an indelible mark on popular culture.

In addition to his work on introducing the concept of a googol, Edward Kasner made significant contributions to the field of set theory. He was also interested in the history of mathematics and wrote a book called "History of Mathematics: An Introduction." Kasner was known for his ability to explain complex mathematical concepts in a way that was accessible to the general public. He believed that anyone could appreciate the beauty and elegance of mathematics with the right approach. Kasner's legacy continues to inspire the field of mathematics, and his work on the googol and googolplex has been referenced in popular culture in everything from movies to television shows and books.

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Irving Langmuir

Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 Brooklyn-August 16, 1957 Woods Hole) was an American scientist.

He is best known for his contributions to the field of surface chemistry and for introducing the concept of "monolayers" (a single layer of atoms or molecules) in surface science. Langmuir also made important contributions to the fields of atomic theory, thermodynamics, and plasma physics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932 for his work on surface chemistry. Langmuir was a prolific researcher and inventor, holding over 40 patents, and his work has had a lasting impact on science and technology. He was also known for his quirky habits and eccentric personality.

Langmuir was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1881, and he earned his undergraduate and doctoral degrees in chemistry from Columbia University. In the early part of his career, Langmuir worked at General Electric, where he conducted important research on industrial processes such as the development of gas-filled vacuum tubes. He also worked on the Manhattan Project during World War II, helping to develop the atomic bomb.

Langmuir was known for his meticulous attention to detail and his ability to design elegant experiments to test his hypotheses. He was also a gifted writer and communicator, and his papers and lectures are still regarded as some of the clearest and most insightful in the field of surface chemistry.

In addition to his scientific contributions, Langmuir was a passionate advocate for science education and public outreach. He often gave talks and demonstrations to local schools and community groups, and he helped to establish a number of science museums and education programs.

Langmuir passed away in Woods Hole, Massachusetts in 1957 at the age of 76. He was widely mourned by his colleagues and students, who remembered him not only as a brilliant scientist, but also as a kind and generous mentor who inspired many young people to pursue careers in science.

Langmuir was also known for his research on the properties of gases and for developing the Langmuir equation, which describes the adsorption of a gas onto a surface. He also discovered the phenomenon of "coagulation," which occurs when droplets of a liquid come together to form larger drops. In addition, Langmuir was a pioneer in the field of plasma physics, and his work laid the foundation for the development of plasma welding and cutting.

Aside from his scientific endeavors, Langmuir was an accomplished artist and musician. He painted watercolors and played the piano and violin, often performing for his colleagues and friends. He was also an avid outdoorsman and enjoyed hiking and fishing in his free time.

In recognition of his scientific achievements, Langmuir received numerous awards and honors, including the Perkin Medal and the Elliott Cresson Medal from the Franklin Institute. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society. Today, Langmuir's work remains influential in many fields, including materials science, chemistry, and engineering.

Langmuir's work on surface chemistry was particularly groundbreaking. He discovered that molecules at the surface of liquids or solids behave differently than those in the bulk, paving the way for the development of the modern science of surface science. He also showed that when a thin film is formed on a surface, there is a reduction in surface energy that creates a stable surface, which he called a "monolayer."

Langmuir's work on plasma physics was also significant, as he was the first to describe what is now known as the "Langmuir probe," a diagnostic tool used to measure temperature, density, and plasma potential. He also developed the Langmuir-Schaefer film deposition technique, which is still widely used today to deposit thin films on surfaces.

In addition to his scientific research, Langmuir was an important figure in the development of industrial research in the United States. He was a founding member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and he helped establish the GE Research Laboratory, which became a model for industrial research labs around the world.

Langmuir's legacy is still felt today, both in the scientific community and in popular culture. The "Langmuir isotherm," which describes the behavior of gases at a surface, is a fundamental tool in surface science. Langmuir's work also inspired numerous fictional characters, including Dr. Gustav Aneschi, a brilliant but eccentric scientist from the movie "The Day the Earth Stood Still."

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Margaret Mead

Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 Philadelphia-November 15, 1978 New York City) a.k.a. Dr. Margaret Mead was an American writer, cultural anthropologist, curator, professor, author and anthropologist. She had one child, Mary Catherine Bateson.

Mead was most well-known for her groundbreaking work in the field of cultural anthropology, particularly her studies of gender roles and sexuality in different cultures. She conducted fieldwork in Samoa, Papua New Guinea, and Bali, among other places. Her work challenged traditional notions of gender and sexuality and emphasized the importance of cultural context in shaping these aspects of human life. Mead was also a prolific writer, publishing numerous books and articles throughout her career. In addition to her academic work, Mead was active in promoting public awareness of anthropology and served as a curator at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City for many years.

Mead's work in cultural anthropology had a significant impact on the feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Her 1928 book "Coming of Age in Samoa" challenged the view that adolescence was inevitably a time of turmoil and conflict, arguing instead that it could be a period of relative calm and stability in societies where young people were given greater freedom and responsibility. This idea resonated with many young women in the United States who were rebelling against traditional gender roles and seeking greater autonomy.

In addition to her academic work, Mead was also an outspoken activist on a number of social and political issues. She was a prominent critic of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and was active in the anti-nuclear movement. She also advocated for greater education and job opportunities for women and for greater respect for indigenous cultures and languages.

Mead's legacy continues to be felt in the field of anthropology and beyond. Her emphasis on cultural relativism and the importance of understanding other cultures on their own terms has become a central tenet of modern anthropology. Additionally, her advocacy for gender and sexual equality has had a lasting impact on feminist thought and activism.

Throughout her lifetime, Margaret Mead made significant contributions to the field of cultural anthropology. She received her B.A. from Barnard College and her Ph.D. from Columbia University, where she studied under anthropologist Franz Boas. Mead's research led her to challenge many conventional beliefs about gender roles, family structure, and child-rearing practices. Her work in Samoa, in particular, was controversial and sparked debates about the relationship between culture and human behavior.

Mead was also a skilled communicator and spread her message through a wide array of media. She was a popular public speaker, a frequent guest on talk shows and radio programs, and an occasional performer on the lecture circuit. She published over twenty books, including her most famous work, "Coming of Age in Samoa," which became a best-seller and a classic in anthropology. Mead was also an active member of the American Association of University Women, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.

Mead's impact on anthropology and other fields has been profound. She helped to popularize cultural relativism, a concept that stresses the importance of understanding other cultures in their own terms, rather than imposing one's own cultural values on them. Her work also paved the way for the development of feminist anthropology, which examines the relationship between gender, culture, and power. Mead's legacy as a scholar, activist, and public intellectual continues to inspire generations of anthropologists and feminists.

Despite facing criticism from some in the anthropological community, Margaret Mead remained dedicated to her research and activism throughout her life. She believed strongly in the power of anthropology to promote social change and understanding, and she worked tirelessly to promote these values to a wider audience. In addition to her academic and activist work, Mead was also a beloved teacher and mentor to many students and junior colleagues. She mentored many women in the field of anthropology and was a role model to women and girls seeking to enter non-traditional fields.Meant was also awarded numerous honors and awards throughout her career, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1979, posthumously. Her legacy continues to inspire social scientists, activists, and feminists around the world.

She died in pancreatic cancer.

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Phoebe Hearst

Phoebe Hearst (December 3, 1842 Franklin County-April 13, 1919 Pleasanton) was an American personality. She had one child, William Randolph Hearst.

Phoebe Hearst was well-known for her philanthropy and dedication to education. She served as a trustee on the International Committee of Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) and donated generously to numerous educational institutions, including the University of California, Berkeley. Phoebe Hearst was also one of the first American women to serve as a regent of the University of California. Beyond her philanthropic work, Phoebe Hearst was an accomplished writer and published various articles and essays. She was married to George Hearst, a wealthy mining mogul and politician. During her husband's political career, Phoebe Hearst became heavily involved in supporting his campaign efforts. She was also known for her lavish entertaining and social events.

Phoebe Hearst's philanthropic work extended beyond the United States, as she also funded several projects in Europe and Asia, including the rebuilding of a school in Japan following a devastating earthquake. Her interest in education led her to establish the Phoebe Hearst Elementary School in San Francisco, and she founded the National Congress of Mothers, later known as the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), to support education and child welfare advocacy. Phoebe Hearst was a supporter of women's suffrage and donated to organizations that worked towards women's rights. In recognition of her contributions to education and philanthropy, the Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley was named in her honor.

Phoebe Hearst was born in Missouri and moved to California with her family during the Gold Rush. Her father was a successful businessman and her mother was active in social causes, which may have influenced Phoebe's dedication to philanthropy later in her life. Phoebe Hearst was also interested in art and traveled extensively to Europe and Asia to collect pieces for her personal collection. She later donated many of these pieces to museums, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.

In addition to her philanthropic work and political activism, Phoebe Hearst was also involved in the women's club movement. She founded the Century Club of San Francisco, a group that focused on the intellectual development of women through lectures and discussions. The club quickly became popular, and similar clubs were founded in other cities across the country.

Phoebe Hearst's son, William Randolph Hearst, went on to become a prominent media mogul and founder of the Hearst Corporation. Despite their initial close relationship, the two had a falling out later in life over disagreements about William's professional choices and personal life. Phoebe Hearst remained committed to her philanthropic work until her death, and her legacy continues to inspire others to this day.

Phoebe Hearst's dedication to education and philanthropy was evident in many aspects of her life. She was instrumental in establishing the University of California, Berkeley's Department of Anthropology and also founded the California School of Mechanical Arts, which later became the San Francisco Polytechnic High School. She established a scholarship at Harvard University in honor of her husband and also donated to the University of Southern California and Mills College. Phoebe Hearst was also a strong advocate for world peace and supported the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She served as the league's president from 1916 to 1920.

Phoebe Hearst's dedication to education extended to her own personal life, as she was a lifelong learner and supporter of arts and culture. She was interested in literature and collected books and manuscripts throughout her lifetime. She also had a keen interest in landscape design and helped to establish the first garden club in California.

In addition to her philanthropic work and involvement in women's clubs, Phoebe Hearst was also a supporter of the arts. She funded the construction of the Hearst Greek Theatre at the University of California, Berkeley and also supported the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra. She was an early collector of Asian art and donated many pieces from her personal collection to museums.

Phoebe Hearst's legacy as a philanthropist and education advocate continues to inspire others. Her dedication to supporting women's rights, education, and world peace set an example for future generations to follow.

She died in influenza.

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Roy Chapman Andrews

Roy Chapman Andrews (January 26, 1884 Beloit-March 11, 1960 Carmel-by-the-Sea) also known as Roy Andrews was an American personality. He had two children, George Borup Andrews and Roy Kevin Andrews.

Roy Chapman Andrews was a renowned adventurer, explorer, and naturalist who made a significant contribution to the field of paleontology. He led several expeditions to Central Asia during the 1920s and 1930s, which resulted in the discovery of several new dinosaur species, including the first-known dinosaur eggs. Andrews was also a prolific writer, penning several books about his travels and discoveries. He worked for the American Museum of Natural History in New York for over three decades, serving as the director of the museum's Department of Asiatic Exploration and Research. He was widely recognized for his contributions to science and exploration, receiving numerous honors, awards, and accolades throughout his career. Andrews passed away in 1960 at the age of 76 in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California.

Andrews was born in Beloit, Wisconsin, and grew up in Nebraska. He attended Beloit College and later the University of Nebraska, where he studied natural sciences. He began his career as a naturalist, working for the U.S. Biological Survey and the American Museum of Natural History. Andrews's love for adventure and exploration led him to organize several expeditions to Central Asia, where he discovered many species new to science. He used innovative methods such as motorcars and airplanes to explore remote areas and made significant contributions to the fields of paleontology, zoology, and anthropology. Andrews was also a filmmaker, producing several documentaries about his expeditions that were shown in theaters around the world. In addition to his scientific work, he was an advocate for the preservation of wildlife and the natural world. Today, Andrews is remembered as one of the greatest explorers and naturalists of the 20th century, and his legacy continues to inspire new generations of scientists and adventurers.

One of the most significant expeditions led by Roy Chapman Andrews was the Central Asiatic Expeditions funded by the American Museum of Natural History. This multi-year expedition explored the Gobi desert in Mongolia, China, and Siberia, where the team found significant discoveries like the dinosaur fossils, including the first-known Velociraptor skeleton. Andrews was also an advocate for gender equality and encouraged women to participate in his expeditions. In 1926, he hired the first female field scientist for the American Museum of Natural History, Yvette Borup Andrews, who later became his wife. Andrews also served as the inspiration for the fictional character of Indiana Jones in the Indiana Jones franchise. His life and contributions to science were featured in a documentary titled "The Bones of the Tiger" and a biographical book titled "Dragon Hunter."

Andrews was a frequent lecturer, giving talks about his discoveries and expeditions in universities and museums around the world. He was also a member of several scientific societies, including the National Academy of Sciences and the Explorer's Club. Andrews believed that careful scientific exploration could help bridge cultural divides and promote peace, and he used his expeditions as a way to build relationships with people from different parts of the world.

In addition to his scientific work, Andrews was also involved in diplomacy. In 1943, he was appointed as the United States representative to the Republic of China, where he played a key role in shaping U.S.-China relations during World War II. Andrews was known for his tact, diplomacy, and cultural sensitivity, and he helped to facilitate communication between Chinese leaders and American officials.

Today, Andrews's legacy lives on through the American Museum of Natural History, where several of his expeditions are highlighted in exhibits. His contributions to the field of paleontology have helped to shape our understanding of the Earth's history, and his adventurous spirit and commitment to exploration continue to inspire new generations of scientists and explorers.

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Romare Bearden

Romare Bearden (September 2, 1911 Charlotte-March 12, 1988 New York City) was an American artist, writer and visual artist.

He is widely recognized as one of the most influential African American artists of the 20th century. Bearden's work was a unique blend of influences from his African American heritage, as well as experiences from his travels around the world. He is best known for his collages, which often depicted themes of African American life, music and culture. Bearden was also involved in the Civil Rights Movement, using his artwork to raise awareness and support for the cause. In addition to his visual art, Bearden was an accomplished writer, having published several books and essays on art and culture. Today, his work can be found in museums and galleries around the world, and his influence continues to be felt in the art world and beyond.

Born in North Carolina, Bearden grew up in Harlem during the Harlem Renaissance, which greatly influenced his life and work. He attended several universities, including New York University and the Sorbonne in Paris, France. He also served in the U.S. Army during World War II.

In the 1950s, Bearden became involved with the Spiral group, a collective of African American artists who sought to address political and social issues through their artwork. He also helped found the Cinque Gallery, which provided a platform for emerging African American artists.

Throughout his career, Bearden received numerous accolades and honors for his contributions to the arts, including the National Medal of Arts in 1987. In addition to his artwork and writing, he was also a dedicated teacher, working at the Art Students League and the Pratt Institute in New York City.

Bearden's legacy continues to inspire and influence artists today, particularly those from underrepresented communities. The Romare Bearden Foundation, established after his death in 1988, supports grants and programs that promote artistic and cultural education.

Bearden's artistic style was heavily influenced by the various cultural and artistic movements he encountered in his travels. He studied African art while in Paris, and was deeply influenced by the work of the Mexican muralists Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Bearden was also heavily influenced by jazz, which is evident in many of his collages. He often depicted jazz musicians and scenes of nightlife in his work, capturing the energy and spirit of the music.

Despite his success, Bearden faced significant challenges as a black artist during a time of racial segregation and discrimination. He often struggled to secure exhibitions and gallery representation, and his work was sometimes dismissed or undervalued due to his race. However, Bearden persevered and continued to create, leaving a lasting impact on the world of art and culture.

In addition to his many artistic achievements, Bearden was also an important advocate for arts education, particularly in underprivileged communities. He believed strongly in the power of art to bring people together and promote understanding, and worked tirelessly to promote artistic education and opportunities for all.

Bearden's artwork was widely exhibited around the world, including at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. and the Mint Museum in Charlotte, North Carolina. In 1975, a retrospective of his work was held at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, the first major exhibition of a black artist at the museum. Bearden's collages are notable for their use of found objects, such as magazine clippings and photographs, which he would layer and manipulate to create dynamic compositions. He also experimented with different mediums, including watercolor, oil paint and printmaking.

In addition to his contributions to the arts, Bearden was also involved in various social and political causes. He worked with the NAACP and other civil rights organizations to promote equality and justice for African Americans. He was also an active member of the Democratic Party and worked to promote political candidates who shared his ideals.

Bearden's impact on the art world continues to be felt today. His collages and paintings remain relevant and influential, and his advocacy for arts education and social justice continue to inspire artists and activists around the world.

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Mary Martin

Mary Martin (December 1, 1913 Weatherford-November 3, 1990 Rancho Mirage) a.k.a. Mary Virginia Martin was an American singer and actor. She had two children, Larry Hagman and Heller Halliday.

Her discography includes: My Heart Belongs to Daddy, Hi-Ho, South Pacific (1949 original Broadway cast) and My Heart Belongs to Daddy.

She died in colorectal cancer.

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