British music stars died at age 80

Here are 28 famous musicians from United Kingdom died at 80:

Siegfried Sassoon

Siegfried Sassoon (September 8, 1886 Matfield-September 1, 1967 Heytesbury) also known as Siegfried Loraine Sassoon or Sassoon, Siegfried was a British poet, writer and memoirist.

He first gained popularity for his poems during World War I, often criticizing the war effort and the government's handling of it. Sassoon was a decorated soldier, having served in the military for four years during the war. However, after witnessing the horrors of war firsthand, he became an advocate for peace and was one of the key figures in the anti-war movement. After the war, Sassoon continued to write poetry and novels, many of which were influenced by his experiences during the war. He was also a mentor to other young writers, including Wilfred Owen. In his later years, Sassoon became known for his autobiographical works, including the three-volume Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man. He was awarded the Order of Merit in 1958 and continued to write until his death in 1967.

Sassoon was born into a wealthy family and was educated at Marlborough College and Cambridge University. He initially pursued a career in law, but his love for literature and poetry led him to abandon his legal studies and pursue writing full-time.

During World War I, Sassoon served as an officer in the British Army and was awarded the Military Cross for his bravery. However, his experiences in the war left him deeply disillusioned and traumatized. He became determined to speak out against the senseless violence and suffering of war.

In 1917, Sassoon wrote what is perhaps his most famous poem, "The General", which harshly criticized the military leadership for their indifference to the suffering of soldiers. He also famously refused to return to active duty and instead wrote a letter to his commanding officer declaring his opposition to the war. This act of defiance earned him public attention and admiration, but also led to his being sent to a military hospital to be treated for "shell shock".

After the war, Sassoon continued to write poetry, as well as novels, biographies, and memoirs. He became a close friend and mentor to the poet Wilfred Owen, who was tragically killed in action just one week before the Armistice was signed in 1918.

Sassoon's works are known for their powerful anti-war message, as well as their vivid depiction of the lived experiences of soldiers during World War I. Along with poets like Wilfred Owen and Rupert Brooke, he helped to shape the public's understanding of the war and its impact on those who fought in it.

Today, Sassoon is considered one of the greatest British poets of the 20th century, known for his passionate advocacy for peace and his refusal to remain silent about the horrors he witnessed during the war.

Read more about Siegfried Sassoon on Wikipedia »

Leo Marks

Leo Marks (September 24, 1920 London-January 15, 2001 London) otherwise known as Leopold Samuel Marks was a British scientist, cryptographer, screenwriter and playwright.

Leo Marks worked for the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) during World War II, where he was in charge of developing codes for secret messages. He was responsible for creating one of the most secure codes of the time, and wrote a book on cryptography called "The Code Book". Marks's expertise in cryptography was sought after by the film industry, where he worked as a consultant and screenwriter, writing the script for the acclaimed film "Peeping Tom". He was also a successful playwright, his most famous work being "The End of the Game". Despite his many accomplishments, Marks was known to be a very private person who shied away from the public eye.

After the war, Leo Marks continued his work in cryptography and even set up his own encryption company. He also wrote several books on the subject, including "Between Silk and Cyanide: A Code Maker's War 1941-1945", which detailed his experiences during WWII.

Apart from his success in the field of cryptography, Marks was also a talented writer and poet. He wrote several plays and was known for his humorous and satirical style. One of his most famous works was the play "The Big Knife", which was later adapted into a film. Despite his success as a playwright, Marks remained modest about his accomplishments and rarely spoke about his work.

Leo Marks was awarded the OBE (Order of the British Empire) in 2000 for his services to the country during WWII. He passed away the following year at the age of 80, leaving behind a legacy as one of the greatest cryptographers of his time and a talented writer.

Read more about Leo Marks on Wikipedia »

Aurel Stein

Aurel Stein (November 26, 1862 Budapest-October 26, 1943 Kabul) a.k.a. Marc Aurel Stein or Sir Aurel Stein was a British archaeologist.

He was known for his expeditions and discoveries in Central Asia, particularly in the areas that are now modern-day China, Pakistan, and Iran. Stein began his career as a professor of Sanskrit at the University of Cambridge before becoming interested in archaeology. He went on several expeditions, including four to Central Asia, between 1900 and 1930.

Stein is best known for his discovery of the Diamond Sutra, a Buddhist text dated to AD 868, which is the oldest printed text in the world. He also found other important treasures such as a copy of the Heart Sutra, Tangut script, and many other manuscripts, paintings, and textiles.

In addition to his archaeological work, Stein was also a skilled linguist and wrote many books and articles about his expeditions and discoveries. He was knighted in 1912 for his contributions to British scholarship and was awarded the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Gold Medal in 1922. Despite having retired in 1933, Stein continued to be engaged in archaeology until his death in 1943.

Stein's expeditions were not without controversy, as he often removed many artifacts and manuscripts from their original locations, which led to accusations of looting. However, he claimed that he was rescuing them from possible destruction, as many of the sites he explored were facing threats of damage or destruction due to political turmoil and environmental factors. Stein's legacy continues to shape the field of archaeology and his discoveries are important for understanding the cultural and historical connections between the East and the West. Today, many of the artifacts he collected are housed in museums around the world, including the British Museum, the National Museum in New Delhi, and the National Museum of Oriental Art in Rome.

Read more about Aurel Stein on Wikipedia »

Henry Shrapnel

Henry Shrapnel (June 3, 1761 Bradford on Avon-March 13, 1842 Southampton) was a British personality.

He was a military officer and inventor who is best known for his invention of the shrapnel shell. The shell was designed to explode in midair and release a shower of small metal balls that would rain down on enemy troops, causing widespread damage and casualties. Shrapnel's invention was first used in the Battle of Copenhagen in 1807 and quickly became a standard weapon in artillery. Beyond his contributions in warfare technology, Shrapnel was also a talented artist who studied at the Royal Academy in London. After retiring from military service, he devoted himself to his art and also served as a member of parliament for Southampton. In 1833, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in recognition of his achievements in military science and technology.

Shrapnel was born into a wealthy family and received his education at Winchester College and then the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich. He went on to serve in the British Army for over 30 years, rising through the ranks from a second lieutenant to a colonel. Shrapnel saw action in various wars, including the American Revolutionary War and the French Revolutionary Wars.

In addition to his military and artistic pursuits, Shrapnel was also a philanthropist. He donated large sums of money to support the education of disadvantaged children and contributed to the establishment of a hospital in Southampton.

Throughout his life, Shrapnel remained committed to the development of new military technology. He continued to refine and improve upon his shrapnel shell, as well as inventing new explosives and means of igniting them. Shrapnel's legacy lives on in the continued use of his eponymous shell in modern warfare.

Read more about Henry Shrapnel on Wikipedia »

Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst

Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (January 29, 1717 Sevenoaks-August 3, 1797 Sevenoaks) also known as Jeffery Amherst Amherst was a British personality.

He was a soldier who served in the Seven Years' War and was the commander-in-chief of British forces in North America during the later stages of the conflict. Amherst was known for his victories against the French in the Battle of Louisbourg, the Battle of Quebec, and the capture of Montreal. He also played a role in the suppression of Pontiac's Rebellion, which sought to drive the British out of the Great Lakes region.

After the war, Amherst served as the governor of Virginia and later became governor-general of British North America. He was made a baron in 1776 for his service to the country. Despite his military successes, Amherst is also remembered for his controversial policies towards Native Americans, including advocating for the intentional spread of smallpox to reduce their populations.

Amherst came from a military family and followed his father's footsteps by joining the army at the age of 18. He climbed the ranks quickly, serving in Europe and the Caribbean before being sent to North America. In addition to his military duties, Amherst was also an accomplished artist and collector of natural specimens. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and corresponded with other scientists and intellectuals of his time.

Amherst's views on Native Americans have been the subject of much criticism, with some arguing that his policies were genocidal. However, it is important to note that his tactics were not unique at the time and were part of a broader pattern of European colonialism. In recent years, there has been renewed attention on Amherst's legacy, with some calling for his name to be removed from public spaces and institutions.

Despite these controversies, Amherst remains an important figure in British military history, and his contributions to the nation's victories in the Seven Years' War cannot be overlooked. His strategic brilliance helped turn the tide of the conflict and secure British dominance in North America.

Read more about Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst on Wikipedia »

William Godwin

William Godwin (March 3, 1756 Wisbech-April 7, 1836 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) was a British philosopher, journalist, political philosopher, writer and novelist. He had one child, Mary Shelley.

Godwin was known for his radical political views and his influence on the anarchist philosophy. His most famous work, "Political Justice", was a critique of governmental institutions and argued for individual freedom and equality. He was also a prominent literary figure, known for his novels "Caleb Williams" and "St. Leon". Godwin had a close relationship with fellow writer Mary Wollstonecraft, whom he married shortly after her pregnancy with their daughter, Mary Shelley. Their marriage was cut short by Wollstonecraft's death shortly after giving birth. Godwin dedicated his later years to writing and editing, and continued to promote his radical ideals through his work.

Godwin's influence was far-reaching, inspiring many later anarchists including Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin. He also had a profound impact on the Romantic movement, directly influencing the work of poets like Percy Bysshe Shelley and William Wordsworth. Godwin's literary output spanned multiple genres including biography, history, and essays, and many of his works continue to be studied today. However, despite his contributions to philosophy, literature, and political thought, Godwin struggled financially for most of his life and was forced to rely on friends and supporters for sustenance. He died in 1836 at the age of 80, leaving behind a legacy of radical thought that continues to inspire scholars and activists around the world.

Read more about William Godwin on Wikipedia »

Edward Marsh

Edward Marsh (November 18, 1872 London-January 13, 1953) was a British personality.

He is best known for his role as a patron of the arts in the early 20th century. Marsh was a prominent figure in the Bloomsbury Group, a circle of intellectuals, artists, and writers who gathered in the Bloomsbury area of London. He served as a private secretary to Winston Churchill during his time as First Lord of the Admiralty and later as Minister of Munitions during World War I. Marsh was also a poet and editor, and he played a key role in the publication of several important modernist works, including T.S. Eliot's "The Waste Land." Throughout his career, Marsh worked tirelessly to promote the arts and support emerging artists, earning him a reputation as one of the most influential cultural figures of his time.

Marsh was born into a wealthy family and was educated at Eton and Oxford. He became interested in literature and the arts at an early age, and became a patron of several writers and artists. During his tenure as Churchill's secretary, he worked closely with Churchill to develop weapons and technology to aid the British war effort. He also played a key role in the development of the tank, which helped turn the tide of the war. Marsh's love of poetry led him to collect and publish the works of several emerging poets, including Rupert Brooke and Wilfred Owen. He was also a prolific letter writer, and his correspondences with authors such as Virginia Woolf and John Maynard Keynes provide valuable insights into the cultural and political landscape of early 20th century Britain. Despite his many accomplishments, however, Marsh remained modest and largely unknown to the public, preferring to work behind the scenes to promote the arts and support emerging artists.

Read more about Edward Marsh on Wikipedia »

Robert Simson

Robert Simson (October 14, 1687 Scotland-October 1, 1768) was a British mathematician.

He was born in West Saltoun, Scotland and studied at the University of Glasgow where he later became a professor of mathematics. Simson made significant contributions to the fields of geometry and trigonometry, publishing several works on Euclidean geometry, including his translation and commentary of the works of the ancient Greek mathematician, Euclid. He also proposed a new method for calculating the maximum and minimum distances between the planets in the solar system. Moreover, Simson was a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Royal Society of London. Today, he is widely regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of 18th century Britain.

Simson's most notable contributions to the field of mathematics include his work on conic sections, where he developed a theorem now known as "Simson's Line". This theorem provides a way to find the circumcircle of a triangle by constructing a line parallel to one of its sides, passing through the orthocenter, and intersecting the other two sides. He also discovered the importance of the Descartes-Euler theorem, which relates the curvatures of four mutually tangent circles. In addition to his mathematical achievements, Simson was known for his teaching and mentoring of many successful mathematicians, including Colin Maclaurin and Matthew Stewart. His influence on Scottish mathematics and culture is still felt to this day, with a professorship at the University of Glasgow named in his honor.

Read more about Robert Simson on Wikipedia »

James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde

James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde (April 29, 1665 Dublin-September 16, 1745 Avignon) otherwise known as James Butler was a British personality.

He was an Irish statesman and soldier who served as a key advisor to King William III during the War of the Grand Alliance. Butler played a pivotal role in the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, which secured William III's reign on the throne. Throughout his career, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and was a prominent figure in Irish politics. Aside from his political career, Butler was also a notable art collector, owning works by artists such as Titian, Rubens, and Van Dyck. His life and career were the subject of many books and films, including the novel "Redgauntlet" by Sir Walter Scott.

Butler was born into a prominent Irish family and was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He inherited his father's earldom at the age of 10, and his titles were later elevated to Duke of Ormonde. He was known for his military prowess and served in various campaigns during the Nine Years' War, including the Battle of Landen and the Siege of Namur. After the war, he became a trusted advisor to King William III, who appointed him Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

Throughout his time as Lord Lieutenant, Butler worked to maintain the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland and suppress Irish Catholic revolts. He also made efforts to improve Ireland's economy and infrastructure, particularly its roads and bridges. However, his time in Ireland was not without controversy, and he was criticized for his harsh treatment of Catholics and his willingness to use violence to maintain order.

In later years, Butler became embroiled in political scandals and fell out of favor with the British monarchy. He was exiled to Avignon in the south of France, where he lived in relative obscurity until his death. Despite his controversial legacy, Butler is remembered as one of the most influential Irish politicians of his time and a key figure in British and European history.

Read more about James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde on Wikipedia »

Richard Bentley

Richard Bentley (January 27, 1662 Oulton-July 14, 1742 Cambridge) was a British personality.

He was a renowned scholar and theologian during his time, known for his contributions to the field of classical studies. Bentley served as the Master of Trinity College, Cambridge for over 20 years and was a widely respected academic figure. He is perhaps best known for his work in editing and interpreting the works of ancient Greek writers, particularly Homer. His critical edition of "Paradise Lost" by John Milton also garnered significant attention in the literary world. Despite his academic success, Bentley was not without controversy, and was involved in several public disputes throughout his career. Overall, however, he is remembered as one of the most significant figures of the Enlightenment period.

Throughout his career, Richard Bentley made a number of important contributions to the field of classical studies. He was responsible for discovering the Latin text of the long-lost Greek epic, "The Battle of the Frogs and Mice", and published the text as part of his dissertation at Cambridge. In addition to his work on Homer, he also contributed significantly to the study of Horace, Theognis, and Callimachus, among others.

In addition to his academic work, Bentley was known for his sharp wit and often feisty personality. He engaged in a number of highly public disputes throughout his career, including a dispute with the philosopher John Locke over the nature of substance, and a controversy with the poet Alexander Pope over Bentley's proposed edition of Pope's works.

Despite these controversies, Bentley was widely respected in the academic community throughout his life, and his influence continued to be felt long after his death. His work on classical texts helped to establish the foundations of modern classical scholarship, and his critical editions of "Paradise Lost" and other works helped to shape the way that these texts are understood and interpreted to this day.

Read more about Richard Bentley on Wikipedia »

Thomas Kidd

Thomas Kidd (April 5, 1770 England-August 27, 1850) was a British personality.

Thomas Kidd was an English botanist and nurseryman who became well-known for his expertise in cultivating exotic plants. He was born in Lancashire and began his career as an apprentice to his father who was a gardener. When he was 18 years old, he moved to London to work as a nurseryman for James Lee and Lewis Kennedy, leading horticulturists of the time.

Kidd quickly gained a reputation for his skill in growing exotic plants and was later appointed as the superintendent of the Cambridge University Botanic Garden, where he worked for over 30 years. During this time, he introduced many new species of plants to the gardens and contributed to the development of the botanical and horticultural knowledge of the period. Kidd was particularly known for his work on the genus Pelargonium, which he cultivated and hybridized to create new varieties.

In addition to his work in botany, Kidd was also a prominent member of the Horticultural Society of London and served as its President for several years. He was a prolific writer, publishing numerous books and articles on gardening and botany, and was widely regarded as one of the leading experts on the subject in his time. Thomas Kidd died in Cambridge in 1850, leaving behind a legacy of botanical knowledge and innovation.

His work in cultivating exotic plants and introducing new species to the Cambridge University Botanic Garden made it one of the most renowned gardens in Europe during his time there. Kidd's dedication to his craft earned him widespread recognition and accolades from the scientific community. In 1838, he was awarded the Royal Horticultural Society's Gold Medal for his contributions to the field of horticulture.

Kidd was also involved in social and political causes, including the fight to abolish slavery in the British Empire. He was a member of the Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery throughout the British Dominions and used his influence and connections to advance the cause of abolition.

Today, Thomas Kidd is remembered as one of the most important figures in the history of British botany and horticulture. His contributions to the study of exotic plants and his role in introducing new species to Europe have had a lasting impact on the field, while his dedication to social and political causes reflects his commitment to using his knowledge and resources for the greater good.

Read more about Thomas Kidd on Wikipedia »

Jean Simmons

Jean Simmons (January 31, 1929 Lower Holloway-January 22, 2010 Santa Monica) a.k.a. Jean Merilyn Simmons, Jean Simmonds or Jean Merilyn Simmons, OBE was a British actor, dancer and voice actor. She had two children, Kate Brooks and Tracy Granger.

Jean Simmons began acting at the age of 14 and quickly rose to fame in Britain during the 1940s. She gained international recognition with her starring roles in films such as "Great Expectations" (1946), "Hamlet" (1948) and "Guys and Dolls" (1955). She received an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her role in "Hamlet". Simmons also had a successful career on stage and television, earning critical acclaim for her performances in various productions. In 2003, she was awarded the OBE for her contributions to the arts.

Jean Simmons was born in Lower Holloway, London, England. Her father was a physical education teacher and her mother was a dance teacher. Growing up, she studied dance and began appearing in productions at the Aida Foster School of Dancing. She was discovered by the director Val Guest while performing in a school production, which led to her first film role in "Give Us the Moon" (1944).

Jean Simmons appeared in over 60 films in her career, including "Black Narcissus" (1947), "The Robe" (1953), "Spartacus" (1960) and "How to Make an American Quilt" (1995). On television, she starred in the mini-series "The Thorn Birds" (1983) and had guest roles on shows such as "Murder, She Wrote" and "Star Trek: The Next Generation".

Simmons was married twice, first to actor and director Stewart Granger and then to director Richard Brooks. She had two daughters from her marriage to Brooks, Kate and Tracy.

Jean Simmons was known for her beauty and talent as an actress, as well as for her grace and poise off-screen. She was a beloved figure in the entertainment industry and is remembered as one of the great actresses of her time.

She died as a result of lung cancer.

Read more about Jean Simmons on Wikipedia »

Henry Thomas Colebrooke

Henry Thomas Colebrooke (June 15, 1756 London-April 10, 1837 London) also known as H. T. Colebrooke was a British personality.

He was a prominent Sanskrit scholar, astrologer, and mathematician. Colebrooke was born into a family of skilled mathematicians, and he began learning the subject at a young age. Later on, he found his passion in Sanskrit and became one of the leading scholars of his time for the language. He studied ancient Indian literature and philosophy and made several important contributions to the field of Indology. He was the first person to translate important Hindu texts such as the Mahabharata and the Bhagavad Gita into English, making them accessible to a wider audience in the West. Colebrooke was also an expert in Hindu astronomy and astrology and wrote extensively on the subject. In recognition of his contributions to the field of Indology, he was named a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1809. He made significant contributions to the study of Indian philosophy and culture and opened doors for a greater understanding of India's rich cultural heritage.

In addition to his scholarly pursuits, Colebrooke was also involved in public service. He served in the British East India Company and was appointed as a judge in Bengal in 1782. He played a crucial role in reforming the legal and administrative systems in the region, earning him the title of "father of Indian law". Colebrooke was also a member of the Royal Asiatic Society and worked towards promoting the study of Eastern languages and cultures in Europe.

Throughout his life, Colebrooke maintained a keen interest in mathematics and made significant contributions to the field, particularly in the areas of algebraic equations and trigonometry. He is credited with discovering the Colebrooke–Cameron equation, which is used to solve indeterminate quadratic equations.

Colebrooke's legacy continues to inspire scholars in the fields of Sanskrit and Indian philosophy. The H.T. Colebrooke Memorial Prize, awarded by the Royal Asiatic Society, honors his contributions to the study of ancient Indian texts. His translations of the Bhagavad Gita and other important Hindu texts remain widely read and influential.

Read more about Henry Thomas Colebrooke on Wikipedia »

Jan Smuts

Jan Smuts (May 24, 1870 Riebeek West-September 11, 1950 Irene) also known as Jan Christiaan Smuts was a British politician, philosopher and barrister. His children are called Japie Smuts, Cato Smuts, Louis Smuts, Jannie Smuts, Sylma Smuts and Santa Smuts.

Smuts was a key figure in South African history, playing a significant role in the founding of the Union of South Africa in 1910 and serving as its Prime Minister from 1919 to 1924 and again from 1939 to 1948. He was also a respected military leader, playing a vital role in the defeat of Germany in World War I and serving as a senior commander during World War II. Smuts was a strong advocate for racial equality and was instrumental in drafting the United Nations Charter. He is regarded by many as one of the greatest statesmen in South African history.

Smuts studied law at the University of Cambridge, where he became interested in politics and philosophy. After returning to South Africa, he became involved in politics and was a key member of the South African delegation that negotiated peace terms with the Boer republics after the Second Boer War. He also played a leading role in the establishment of the League of Nations and helped to draft the Treaty of Versailles.

Despite his role as a leader in South African politics, Smuts also faced criticism for his policies, including his support for the segregationist system of apartheid. He struggled to balance his commitment to democracy and liberalism with concerns about national security and the need for social order.

In addition to his political career, Smuts was also a prolific writer and philosopher. He published several influential books, including "Holism and Evolution" and "The Divine Forerunner," which explored his ideas about the relationships between individuals, societies, and nature.

Smuts passed away in September 1950 at his home in Irene, South Africa. Despite controversies surrounding his legacy, he is remembered as one of the most important figures in the history of South Africa and a leading statesman of the 20th century.

Read more about Jan Smuts on Wikipedia »

Margaret Campbell, Duchess of Argyll

Margaret Campbell, Duchess of Argyll (December 1, 1912 Newton Mearns-July 25, 1993) was a British personality.

She was also known by the nickname "The Dirty Duchess" due to the scandalous divorce case she went through in 1963. Margaret was married to Ian Campbell, the 11th Duke of Argyll, with whom she had three children. However, their marriage fell apart due to numerous infidelities on both sides, and the divorce proceedings quickly turned into a public spectacle with allegations of drug use, voyeurism, and obscene Polaroid photographs. Margaret's reputation was forever tarnished by the events of the trial, and she spent the rest of her life in relative seclusion. Nevertheless, she maintained her interest in the arts and served as a member of the Arts Council of Great Britain.

She also had a talent for interior design and was known for her elegant and eclectic style. Margaret's fashion sense was also widely admired, and she became a fashion icon during the 1950s and 60s, with her signature look often featuring oversized sunglasses and bold, statement jewelry. Despite the scandals that surrounded her, Margaret was also known for her philanthropic efforts, and she established the Help the Aged charity in Scotland, which aimed to provide assistance to elderly people in need. Margaret's legacy continues to be remembered, not just for the scandal that dominated her later years, but for her style, philanthropy, and contributions to the arts.

Read more about Margaret Campbell, Duchess of Argyll on Wikipedia »

Alex Comfort

Alex Comfort (February 10, 1920 London-March 26, 2000 South Northamptonshire) also known as Alexander Comfort or Dr. Alex Comfort was a British physician, writer, gerontologist and author.

He was noted for his research on aging, biology of aging, and psychological and social aspects of aging. Comfort authored over 50 books, including several novels and volumes of poetry, but he is perhaps best known for his 1972 book, "The Joy of Sex," which became a bestseller and a cultural phenomenon. In addition to his writing, Comfort was an anarchist and pacifist who advocated for social justice and nuclear disarmament. He spent his later years in seclusion on a farm in England, where he continued to write and study the science of aging until his death in 2000.

Comfort was born in London to a Jewish family that valued education and intellectual pursuits. He attended prestigious schools and later obtained his medical degree from the University of Cambridge. During World War II, he served as a conscientious objector and worked in hospitals and as a medical examiner for the British government.

After the war, Comfort became increasingly interested in social and political issues. He wrote about his anarchist and pacifist beliefs in his books and became involved in various political campaigns. In the 1950s, he was blacklisted in the United States for his socialist views and was refused entry into the country.

Comfort's research on aging and the biology of aging was groundbreaking and earned him international recognition. He believed that aging was a natural process that should be studied and understood, rather than feared and avoided. He advocated for improving the quality of life for elderly people and encouraging them to stay active and engaged in their communities.

Despite the controversy surrounding "The Joy of Sex," Comfort considered it one of his least significant works. He believed that it was important to destigmatize sex and promote sexual education, but he also felt that the book had overshadowed his other accomplishments.

In addition to his writing and activism, Comfort was a skilled pianist and composer. He was also a devoted husband to his wife, Jane, who was an artist and fellow radical. Together, they raised a family and shared a lifelong commitment to social justice and personal freedom.

Read more about Alex Comfort on Wikipedia »

Robert Lowe, Viscount Sherbrooke

Robert Lowe, Viscount Sherbrooke (December 4, 1811 Bingham-July 27, 1892) was a British personality.

Born in Bingham, Nottinghamshire, England, Robert Lowe was a prominent British politician known for his contributions in many fields. One of the most notable accomplishments in his political career was his role in the passing of the Public Schools Act 1868, which aimed to improve the quality of education in England. He was also an active member of the Liberal Party and served as a Member of Parliament for various constituencies over the years. Aside from his political career, Lowe was also an accomplished scholar who received a classical education at the University of Oxford. He eventually became a fellow of the university and was appointed as the Vice Chancellor of the university in 1870. Lowe was also known for his contributions to the field of economics, having written many influential works on the subject. In recognition of his achievements, Lowe was raised to the peerage in 1880 and became known as Viscount Sherbrooke.

Additionally, Lowe's career also included a brief stint as Chancellor of the Exchequer, a position he held from 1868 to 1873. During his tenure, he implemented a controversial budget that was criticized for its heavy taxation, ultimately leading to his resignation from the position. Lowe's contributions to the field of economics were significant, and his writing on the subject included a book entitled "Speeches on Parliamentary Reform," which is still referenced by economists and historians today. In his personal life, Lowe was described as brilliant, witty, and highly intelligent, but he also had a reputation for being difficult to work with and was often criticized for his lack of political acumen. Despite this, he remained an influential figure in British politics until his death in July 1892.

Read more about Robert Lowe, Viscount Sherbrooke on Wikipedia »

A. S. Hornby

A. S. Hornby (April 5, 1898 Chester-April 5, 1978) was a British lexicographer.

He is best known for creating the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, which has become one of the most popular dictionaries for non-native English speakers. Hornby was interested in teaching English as a foreign language and worked as a teacher and lecturer in various countries, including China and Switzerland. He also authored several books on teaching English, including "Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language" and "The Teaching of Structural Words and Sentence Patterns." Hornby's contributions to the field of English language learning have been recognized globally, and the A.S. Hornby Educational Trust was established in his honor to support English language learning projects around the world.

In addition to his career in linguistics, Hornby served as an infantry officer in World War I and later joined the British Council in 1938, where he worked to promote cultural exchange and education between the United Kingdom and other countries. He also served as a consultant for the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) on language education programs. Hornby was awarded the Order of the British Empire in 1953 and was made an honorary fellow of the University of Leeds in 1974. He continued to work on language education projects until his death in 1978. Today, the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary remains an essential tool for millions of non-native English speakers around the world.

Read more about A. S. Hornby on Wikipedia »

Ernest Augustus I of Hanover

Ernest Augustus I of Hanover (June 5, 1771 Buckingham Palace-November 18, 1851 Hanover) was a British personality. His child is called George V of Hanover.

Ernest Augustus I of Hanover was the fifth son of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. He was educated at the University of Göttingen and later served in the Hanoverian army during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1814, he was appointed as the King of Hanover after the Congress of Vienna. He ruled for over 36 years and oversaw many significant developments in the country, including the construction of railways, canals, and the expansion of the university. He was an avid art collector and his collection was considered one of the finest in Europe. He married twice, first to Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, with whom he had his only child, George V of Hanover, and later to Princess Frederica of Cumberland. Ernest Augustus I died in Hanover at the age of 80 and was succeeded by his son George V.

During his reign, Ernest Augustus I of Hanover faced opposition from liberal and nationalist movements, leading to the incorporation of Hanover into the German Confederation in 1815. He also dealt with economic challenges and conflicts with neighboring states, such as Prussia.

Ernest Augustus I was known for his conservative and authoritarian rule, often clashing with the Hanoverian parliament over issues such as censorship and the expansion of civil rights. However, he did advocate for the development of industry and agriculture, and established a number of social welfare programs.

In addition to his role as king, Ernest Augustus I was a member of various societies and associations, including the Royal Society and the Hanoverian Academy of Sciences and Humanities. He was also an honorary member of the British Royal Academy of Arts.

Ernest Augustus I was buried in the mausoleum at Herrenhausen Gardens in Hanover, alongside his first wife, Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. His descendants continue to play a prominent role in European royalty and politics.

Read more about Ernest Augustus I of Hanover on Wikipedia »

Alexander Ramsay of Mar

Alexander Ramsay of Mar (December 21, 1919-December 20, 2000) was a British personality. He had one child, Katharine Fraser, Mistress of Saltoun.

Alexander Ramsay of Mar was born in London as the elder son of Captain Alexander Ramsay, who was in the Scots Guards, and his wife, Lady Mary Frances Elphinstone, daughter of the 15th Lord Elphinstone. He was educated at Winchester College and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied history.

During World War II, Ramsay served in the Middle East, North Africa, and Italy in the Scots Guards, rising to the rank of Major. He was mentioned in despatches and awarded the Military Cross. After the war, he held various positions in the British government, including as Private Secretary to the Minister of Defence, and later as Assistant Private Secretary to Queen Elizabeth II.

In 1955, Ramsay married Flora Fraser, the daughter of the 20th Lord Saltoun. They had one child, Katharine Fraser, who later became Mistress of Saltoun in her own right. Ramsay was a passionate horseman and fox hunter, and also enjoyed skiing and tennis.

In 1974, he was created a Baronet of Mar, a title that had been held by his ancestors since the 14th century. Ramsay died in 2000 at the age of 80.

As well as his work with the British government, Alexander Ramsay of Mar had a significant role in European affairs. He represented the UK at the Council of Europe, and later served as the UK's first Permanent Representative to the European Communities. He was also appointed as the first Chairman of the Committee of Senior Officials which was responsible for the development of the European Union's Single Market.

Ramsay was known for his strong sense of duty and his commitment to public service. He was often described as a loyal, dependable, and charming man who had the ability to work effectively across national and political boundaries.

In addition to his public service, Ramsay was also a supporter of the arts and cultural heritage. He served as a trustee of the National Portrait Gallery, and was involved in the management of several historic properties, including Athelhampton House in Dorset.

Overall, Alexander Ramsay of Mar was a distinguished and accomplished individual who made significant contributions to British and European politics, public service, and cultural heritage.

Read more about Alexander Ramsay of Mar on Wikipedia »

John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon

John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon (February 28, 1873 Manchester-January 11, 1954 London) was a British personality.

He was a prominent lawyer and politician who served as a Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons from 1906 to 1940. Simon was also appointed as Solicitor-General, Attorney-General, and Lord Chancellor in different periods of his career. He played a significant role in drafting the legislation that established the League of Nations and was a vocal opponent of appeasement policies before World War II. Simon was elevated to the peerage in 1940 as a Viscount and continued to serve in the House of Lords until his death in 1954. He was widely respected for his legal expertise and profound knowledge of constitutional law.

In addition to his legal and political career, John Simon was also an accomplished writer and historian. He authored several books on legal and constitutional issues, including "The Law and the Constitution" and "British Foreign Policy Since 1919." Simon was also a member of the Royal Society of Literature and a fellow of All Souls College at Oxford University. Despite his successes, Simon faced criticism for his willingness to compromise on certain political issues, particularly during the early years of the Second World War. Nevertheless, he remained a respected figure in British politics and was widely mourned following his death in 1954. Today, Simon is remembered as one of the most important legal and political figures of his time, and his contributions to constitutional law continue to be studied and debated by experts and scholars.

Read more about John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon on Wikipedia »

Duncan Cameron

Duncan Cameron (May 20, 1808 Hampshire-June 8, 1888 Kent) was a British personality.

He is best known for his role as a shipbuilder and merchant, having established a successful shipbuilding business in the mid-19th century. Cameron was also actively involved in politics, serving as a member of the British Parliament for a period of time. In addition to his business and political pursuits, Cameron was an avid collector of art and artifacts. His private collection included works by renowned artists such as Rembrandt, Vermeer, and Van Dyck, as well as ancient Egyptian and Roman artifacts. After his death, his collection was donated to the National Gallery in London. Cameron was also a philanthropist, actively supporting a number of charitable causes throughout his life.

Cameron was born into a family of shipbuilders and learned the trade from his father. He went on to establish his own shipbuilding business in the town of Southampton, which quickly became one of the most successful shipyards in the region. Cameron's highly skilled craftsmen were in high demand, and his business flourished as a result.

Despite his success in business, Cameron remained humble and committed to serving his community. He was an active member of his local church and was known for his generosity towards the less fortunate. He donated considerable sums of money to various charities and was also involved in the establishment of several schools in the area.

Cameron's political career included a term as a member of parliament for the Whig Party. He was known for his support of social reform, including the abolition of slavery and the introduction of workers' rights. Cameron was well-respected by his peers and was considered to be a skilled orator.

In addition to his love of art and artifacts, Cameron was also a keen collector of books. His extensive library included rare and valuable volumes, many of which had been passed down through his family for generations.

Cameron's legacy continues to be celebrated today, with many of his ships still in use and his collection of art and artifacts on display at the National Gallery in London. His commitment to philanthropy and social reform continues to inspire others to this day.

Read more about Duncan Cameron on Wikipedia »

Mountstuart Elphinstone

Mountstuart Elphinstone (October 6, 1779 Dumbarton-November 20, 1859 Surrey) was a British diplomat and historian.

He served in various administrative positions in India including Governor of Bombay and was instrumental in the development of education and infrastructure in the region. Elphinstone was also a prolific writer and his books on the history and culture of India and Afghanistan are still regarded as important sources of information. His contributions to Indian history and culture earned him the nickname "The Father of Indian History". In addition to his work in India, Elphinstone also played a key role in the establishment of the University of London and was a member of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Elphinstone was born into a noble Scottish family and educated at the University of Edinburgh. After completing his education, he joined the East India Company's civil service in 1795 and arrived in India the following year. In India, he quickly rose through the ranks and held various positions of importance in the British administration. He is widely credited with introducing several reforms in India, including the establishment of a modern postal system and the introduction of land revenue policies that proved beneficial to the local farmers.

Elphinstone was also known for his extensive travels across India and his efforts to study and document its history and culture. His books, including "History of India" and "An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul and Its Dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India", are still considered invaluable sources of information on the subject.

After retiring from active service, Elphinstone returned to Britain where he continued to be actively involved in various academic and literary pursuits. He was also a founding member of the Royal Geographical Society and the Royal Asiatic Society. He died in Surrey at the age of 80 and is remembered as one of the most important figures in the history of British India.

Read more about Mountstuart Elphinstone on Wikipedia »

Margaret Bondfield

Margaret Bondfield (March 17, 1873 Chard-June 16, 1953 Sanderstead) was a British personality.

She rose from humble beginnings to become the first female member of the British Cabinet as Minister of Labour in 1929. Throughout her career, Bondfield was a strong advocate for workers' rights and played a key role in the development of labor laws and policies to protect employees in the UK. She was also a prominent figure in the women's suffrage movement and was heavily involved in trade unionism. Bondfield's dedication to social justice and equality made her a respected and influential figure in British politics and history.

Additionally, Bondfield played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Women's Labour League in 1906, which aimed to fight for better working conditions and wages for women. She also campaigned for the equal pay of men and women, which eventually became her key agenda while serving as the Minister of Labour. Born into a poor family, Bondfield started working at the age of 14 as a draper's apprentice. She later became a trade union activist and rose through the ranks to be elected as the first woman member of the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in 1918. Bondfield continued to make history as she was appointed as the first female Chair of the TUC in 1923. Her contributions to the empowerment of women and the working class continue to be celebrated and recognized to this day.

Read more about Margaret Bondfield on Wikipedia »

Henry Tate

Henry Tate (March 11, 1819 White Coppice-December 5, 1899) was a British personality.

He was a sugar merchant and philanthropist who became a patron of the arts. Tate is best known for founding the Tate Gallery in London, which houses a collection of British art from the 16th century to the present day. Tate's fascination with art began in the 1870s when he started collecting Victorian paintings, which were not highly regarded at the time. He later expanded his collection to include works by Pre-Raphaelite and contemporary artists. Tate's philanthropic work also included the funding of libraries and the establishment of public parks. He was knighted in 1898 for his contributions to the arts and philanthropy. Today, the Tate Gallery remains one of the most prominent art institutions in the world.

As a businessman, Henry Tate was a pioneer in the sugar industry, establishing his own refinery in Liverpool in 1862. He introduced new techniques for refining sugar and helped to make sugar more affordable for ordinary people in Britain. Tate was also involved in the creation of the National Gallery of British Art, which later became the Tate Britain. He donated his own collection of paintings and provided funding for the gallery's construction.

Tate's philanthropic initiatives extended beyond the arts to education and health. He was a major benefactor of the University of London, where he established a scholarship fund for students of science and medicine. He also provided financial support for the development of hospitals and medical research in London. In recognition of his contributions, Tate was awarded numerous honors, including the Freedom of the City of Liverpool and the Order of the Medjidie from the Ottoman Empire.

Despite Tate's success and wealth, he remained a somewhat private figure, dedicating himself to his business and philanthropic endeavors. He never married and had no children. Tate's legacy, however, lives on through the Tate Gallery and the many other institutions he supported during his lifetime.

Read more about Henry Tate on Wikipedia »

John Bowring

John Bowring (October 17, 1792 Exeter-November 23, 1872) was a British economist. He had three children, Lewin Bentham Bowring, Edgar Alfred Bowring and John Charles Bowring.

In addition to being an economist, Bowring was also a politician and a writer. He served as a Member of Parliament for Bolton and later for Exeter. He was also appointed as the fourth Governor of Hong Kong, a role in which he served from 1854 to 1859.

Throughout his career, Bowring was an advocate for free trade and international cooperation. He was a close friend of John Stuart Mill, and the two collaborated on various political and economic issues.

As a writer, Bowring translated many works of literature and poetry, including the works of Hungarian poet Sándor Petőfi and German poet Friedrich Schiller. He also wrote several books himself, including "The Kingdom and People of Siam" based on his travels in Southeast Asia.

Throughout his life, Bowring was known for his tireless work ethic and dedication to public service. He passed away in 1872 at the age of 80, leaving behind a legacy of economic and political reform.

In addition to his political and literary accomplishments, John Bowring was also a linguist, fluent in many languages including French, Spanish, Dutch, and Chinese. He worked as a diplomat, negotiating trade deals with countries such as France, Belgium, and China. During his time in Hong Kong, he implemented several reforms, including the establishment of a police force and a system of law and order. Bowring is also widely credited with introducing the concept of "most-favored nation" status in international trade agreements. In his later years, he continued to write and publish books, including his memoirs and a collection of his speeches. Despite his many achievements, Bowring often faced criticism for his controversial views on issues such as women's suffrage and British colonialism. Nevertheless, he remains an important figure in British politics and economics, known for his contributions to free trade and diplomacy.

Read more about John Bowring on Wikipedia »

Richard Wollheim

Richard Wollheim (May 5, 1923 London-November 4, 2003) was a British philosopher.

He was particularly known for his work in aesthetics and the philosophy of art. Wollheim was educated at St. Paul's School in London and then went on to study at Balliol College, Oxford. During World War II, he served in the British Army Intelligence Corps. After the war, he returned to Oxford to complete his studies.

Wollheim held various teaching positions throughout his career, including at University College London and Columbia University. He was also a fellow of the British Academy and served as its president from 1987 to 1991.

In addition to his work on aesthetics and the philosophy of art, Wollheim wrote on a variety of other topics, including psychoanalysis, existentialism, and the philosophy of mind. He authored several books, including "Art and Its Objects" and "On the Emotions."

Wollheim's contributions to the field of aesthetics and philosophy of art have been widely recognized and influential. He is particularly known for his theory of "seeing-in," which describes the way we see pictures as representing objects and scenes.

Wollheim died of pneumonia in London in 2003, at the age of 80.

During his career, Wollheim not only contributed to theoretical philosophy but also served as an editor and critic for several publications, including the TLS (Times Literary Supplement). He was also a prolific writer of reviews, essays, and articles, and many of his works have been collected in anthologies. Apart from his academic work, Wollheim was an accomplished art critic, and his writings on art were heavily influenced by his philosophical ideas. He was also an ardent supporter of contemporary British art and worked closely with artists such as Francis Bacon and Lucian Freud. In recognition of his contributions to philosophy and art, Wollheim was awarded several accolades, including the Acquavella Prize for excellence in art critical writing.

Read more about Richard Wollheim on Wikipedia »

Havelock Ellis

Havelock Ellis (February 2, 1859 Croydon-July 8, 1939 Hintlesham) a.k.a. Dr. Havelock Ellis or Henry Havelock Ellis was a British psychologist, physician and writer.

He is best known for his groundbreaking research and work on human sexuality, particularly his works "Studies in the Psychology of Sex", which was published in seven volumes between 1897 and 1928. Ellis was also a prominent social reformer, advocating for more open and tolerant attitudes towards sexuality and gender roles, as well as championing women's rights and the abolition of capital punishment. Although controversial in his time, his work helped pave the way for modern research and understanding of human sexuality and gender. Outside of his academic pursuits, Ellis was also an accomplished mountaineer and was one of the founding members of the Fabian Society, a socialist organization dedicated to promoting social and economic justice.

Ellis grew up in a wealthy family and received a private education before attending St. Thomas' Hospital Medical School, ultimately becoming a physician. He was deeply influenced by the ideas of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer, and later worked closely with influential sexologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing. Ellis also studied under French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, who helped popularize the use of hypnosis as a tool for studying human psychology.

In addition to his work on human sexuality and social reform, Ellis was also an avid writer and poet. He published over 60 books and was a regular contributor to popular magazines and newspapers, including the Manchester Guardian and the Daily News. Ellis was also a member of the Order of the Companions of Honour, an elite British order of chivalry reserved for individuals who have made exceptional contributions to the arts, sciences, or public service.

Despite facing criticism and even legal action for his work on human sexuality and gender, Ellis continued to advocate for more open and tolerant attitudes towards these topics throughout his life. His work helped lay the foundation for modern sexology and continues to be widely cited and studied today.

Read more about Havelock Ellis on Wikipedia »

Related articles