Here are 29 famous musicians from Germany died at 69:
Sigmar Polke (February 13, 1941 Oleśnica-June 11, 2010 Cologne) was a German painter, photographer, visual artist and artist.
Polke is considered one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, known for his experimentation with various mediums and styles. He was associated with the Capitalist Realism movement in the 1960s, which challenged the political and artistic establishment of post-war Germany. Polke's work often incorporated pop culture, consumerism, and political commentary. He also explored the psychedelic and mystical in his art, using unconventional materials like uranium and meteorite dust. Some of his most famous works include "Higher Beings Command," "Watchtower," and "Untitled (Quetta, Pakistan)." Polke's legacy continues to inspire generations of artists and his work can be found in major museums around the world.
Polke was born in Silesia, then part of Germany, and grew up in East Germany before fleeing to West Berlin in 1953. He studied at the University of Fine Arts in Hamburg, where he met fellow artist Gerhard Richter. The two would collaborate on many projects throughout their careers. Polke was known for his unconventional techniques, often using chemical reactions and other unpredictable methods to create his art. He also had a deep interest in photography and explored the medium extensively in his work. In addition to his artistic pursuits, Polke was also a musician, playing in several bands throughout his life. He was a recipient of numerous honors and awards for his contributions to the arts.
He died caused by cancer.
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Hans Bernd Gisevius (July 14, 1904 Arnsberg-February 23, 1974 Müllheim) was a German personality.
He was a civil servant and lawyer who joined the resistance against the Nazi regime during World War II. Gisevius was a member of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence, where he worked with Wilhelm Canaris to undermine the Nazi regime. He was involved in several plots to assassinate Hitler, including the famous July 20, 1944, plot.
After the war, Gisevius testified during the Nuremberg Trials and wrote several books about his experiences in the resistance. He also worked as a lawyer and advisor to the West German government. Gisevius is remembered as one of the key figures in the resistance against Hitler and a champion of democracy and liberty.
Gisevius started working for the Abwehr in 1933 as a legal advisor but soon became disillusioned with the Nazi regime and began secretly working against Hitler. He played a key role in helping to smuggle Jews and other targeted groups out of the country and into Switzerland. Gisevius was also involved in the plot to overthrow Hitler by convincing influential figures to join the resistance movement.
After the war, Gisevius worked tirelessly to bring Nazi war criminals to justice. He testified against several high-ranking officials during the Nuremberg Trials, including Hermann Göring and Rudolf Hess. He also served as a consultant for the film "Operation Valkyrie," which was based on the July 20 plot.
In addition to his legal work, Gisevius wrote several books about his experiences in the resistance, including "To the Bitter End" and "Valkyrie: An Insider's Account of the Plot to Kill Hitler." He was also a frequent commentator on German politics and a vocal advocate for human rights.
Despite the risks involved, Gisevius remained steadfast in his commitment to democracy and fought tirelessly against the Nazi regime. His bravery and selflessness made him a hero to many, and his legacy continues to inspire those fighting for freedom and justice today.
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Robert Wartenberg (June 19, 1887 Grodno-November 16, 1956 San Francisco) was a German neurologist.
He is best known for his description of the Wartenberg sign, a clinical finding in which a patient is unable to adduct their fifth finger. Wartenberg also made significant contributions to the field of neurology by studying nerve injuries and developing new surgical techniques for treating nerve disorders. During his career, he authored several publications and was active in teaching and training medical students and residents. Wartenberg was forced to flee Germany in 1933 due to his Jewish heritage and ultimately settled in the United States, where he continued his work in neurology until his death in 1956.
In addition to his contributions to neurology, Robert Wartenberg was also an accomplished musician, playing the violin and piano. He often performed in concerts with other medical professionals and even organized a chamber music group at the University of California, San Francisco. Wartenberg was also a passionate advocate for human rights, particularly for those affected by the rise of Nazi Germany. In the United States, he continued his activism by serving as the chair of the Refugee Medical Committee and working with organizations that aided refugees and displaced persons. Wartenberg's legacy in the field of neurology and his commitment to social justice continue to inspire and influence medical professionals today.
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Konrad Theodor Preuss (June 2, 1869 Bagrationovsk-June 8, 1938 Berlin) was a German personality.
He was an ethnologist, archaeologist, and linguist who specialized in the cultures and languages of the indigenous peoples of South America. He conducted extensive fieldwork in Brazil and was one of the first scholars to study the Tupi-Guarani language family. Preuss also made significant contributions to the study of the indigenous peoples of the Amazon region, including the Munduruku and Gavião. In addition to his research, Preuss was an influential teacher and mentor to many students, and he is remembered for his dedication to preserving the cultural heritage of the peoples he studied. However, his legacy is also marred by his association with Nazi ideology in the final years of his life.
Preuss was born in Bagrationovsk, then in Prussia, and grew up in a family of educators. He began his academic career as a student of philology and anthropology at the University of Berlin in the late 1800s, where he was influenced by the renowned scholars of the time, including Adolf Bastian and Wilhelm Wundt.
In 1898, Preuss traveled to Brazil as a member of a German scientific expedition, and he fell in love with the country and its people. He subsequently spent much of his life in Brazil, studying and documenting the cultures and languages of the indigenous peoples.
During his career, Preuss published numerous articles and books on his research, including the influential work "Aus dem Leben der Naturvölker" (From the Life of Primitive Peoples), which examined the social and cultural practices of indigenous peoples in South America.
Despite his many accomplishments, Preuss's reputation has been tarnished by his involvement with the Nazi regime in his later years. He joined the Nazi Party in 1937 and was appointed to a position within the party's race research division. After his death the following year, his work was largely discredited due to his association with Nazi ideology. However, some scholars have argued that his earlier contributions to anthropology and ethnology remain significant and worthy of study.
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Puig Aubert (March 24, 1925 Andernach-June 3, 1994 Carcassonne) was a German personality.
Puig Aubert was actually a French rugby league footballer. He was born to Spanish parents in Germany but moved to France as a young child. He began playing rugby league in 1942 and went on to have a successful career, primarily playing for the Carcassonne club. Aubert was known for his skill as a goal kicker and for his leadership on the field. He also played for the French national team, earning 13 caps and scoring 104 points. Aubert is considered one of the greatest rugby league players in French history and was inducted into the Rugby League Hall of Fame in 2018.
In addition to his impressive rugby league career, Puig Aubert also had a successful stint in coaching. He coached the Carcassonne club between 1955 and 1965, leading them to several championship titles during that time. Aubert's contributions to rugby league in France are still remembered and celebrated today, and he continues to be seen as a legendary figure in the sport. Apart from rugby, Aubert was also an accomplished boxer and was known for his agility and quick reflexes in the ring. Despite facing multiple challenges throughout his life, including the German occupation of France during World War II and financial difficulties, Aubert remained dedicated to his sport and inspired countless individuals with his talent and perseverance.
He died caused by myocardial infarction.
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Albert Marth (May 5, 1828 Kołobrzeg-August 5, 1897 Heidelberg) also known as A. Marth was a German astronomer.
Marth studied astronomy and mathematics at the University of Berlin and went on to work at the Berlin Observatory. He became known for his precision in calculating the positions of celestial objects, particularly comets and asteroids. Marth also discovered several new comets during his career.
In 1857, Marth was appointed assistant astronomer at the private Bishop Auckland Observatory in England, where he spent much of his career. He made significant contributions to the observatory's work in compiling star catalogs and mapping the positions of stars in the sky.
Marth was a member of the Royal Astronomical Society and received many honors during his career, including the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1862. He retired in 1883 due to poor health and returned to Germany, where he continued to work on astronomical calculations until his death in 1897.
Marth is best known for his detailed observations of Martian surface features, which he made using the 36-inch Great Melbourne Telescope in Australia. He published several papers on the geography and rotation of Mars, including one in which he discovered the first major Martian dust storm in 1877. Marth was a meticulous observer and his work laid the foundation for modern astronomy. In addition to his scientific contributions, Marth was an accomplished linguist, fluent in several languages including Greek, Latin, and Arabic. He was also an avid collector of coins, stamps, and antique jewelry. Today, Marth's name is remembered through several astronomical objects, including the asteroid 2784 Marth and the lunar crater Marth.
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Friedrich Kluge (June 21, 1856 Cologne-May 21, 1926 Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German personality.
He was a prominent linguist and philologist, best known for his contributions to the study of German language and literature. Kluge studied at the University of Bonn and later taught there before moving on to become a professor of German language and literature at the University of Freiburg.
Kluge was a prolific writer, publishing numerous papers and books on German language, etymology, and literature throughout his career. He is best known for his influential dictionary, "Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache" (Etymological Dictionary of the German Language), which was first published in 1883 and remains a valuable resource for linguists and scholars today.
Kluge was also deeply interested in Germanic mythology and folklore, and his works on these topics, such as "Deutsche Mythologie" (German Mythology), have become important contributions to the field. Kluge's legacy as a pioneer in Germanic linguistics and folklore continues to be celebrated today.
In addition to his contributions to linguistic and literary studies, Friedrich Kluge was also actively involved in politics. He was a member of the liberal Progressive People's Party and served in the Reichstag, the national parliament of the German Empire, from 1903 to 1907. Kluge was known for his advocacy of democracy, educational reform, and social justice, and he was recognized as a leading voice of the German progressive movement. He also took part in the peace movement during World War I, opposing the militarist policies of the German government and advocating for a negotiated settlement to end the conflict. Following the war, Kluge continued to advance his vision of a more democratic and just society through his writings and public speeches. Despite his many accomplishments, Kluge remained humble and dedicated to his work until his death in 1926.
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Woldemar Voigt (September 2, 1850 Leipzig-December 13, 1919 Göttingen) was a German physicist.
He is most known for his work in the fields of thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Voigt was also a professor at the University of Göttingen, where he taught physics for many years. He made significant contributions to the study of sound waves and their propagation, and he developed the theory of the Doppler effect in the early 1880s. His other major contribution was the development of the Voigt profile, which is used to model spectral lines in atomic and molecular physics. In addition to his scientific work, Voigt was also a musician and was skilled in playing the piano and the organ. Over his lifetime, he published over 100 scientific papers, and his legacy continues to be felt in the field of physics today.
Voigt received his doctorate degree in physics from the University of Leipzig, where he went on to work as an assistant for several years. He then moved to Göttingen to work as a lecturer and eventually became a professor in 1884. Voigt's pioneering work in the fields of thermodynamics and electromagnetism was fundamental to the development of modern physics.
During World War I, Voigt was actively involved in Germany's war effort and worked on developing new technologies. He also published papers on topics such as the theory of X-ray spectra and the photoelectric effect.
Voigt was a member of the Royal Society of Sciences in Göttingen, as well as the Prussian Academy of Sciences, and was awarded several honors throughout his career. He passed away in 1919 at the age of 69.
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Paul Gerhardt (March 12, 1607 Gräfenhainichen-May 27, 1676 Lübben (Spreewald)) also known as Paul Gerhards was a German personality.
His albums include Paul Gerhardt: Die schönsten Choräle (Bach-Chor Siegen feat. conductor: Ulrich Stötzel) and Die großen Choräle und Geistlichen Lieder.
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Carl Friedrich von Siemens (September 5, 1872 Berlin-September 9, 1941) was a German politician.
He was a member of the prominent Siemens family and served as the chairman of the Siemens AG company from 1919 to 1941. Siemens was also actively involved in politics, serving as a member of the Reichstag, the lower house of the German parliament, from 1924 to 1928. He was a member of the German National People's Party and was known for his nationalist and anti-communist views. During World War II, Siemens was a prominent supporter of the Nazi regime and used his company's resources to assist the German war effort. Despite his controversial political views and actions, Siemens is remembered as a prominent figure in the development of German industry and technology, and his family's company remains a major player in the global economy today.
Siemens was the youngest of the four brothers who led the Siemens company during its critical pre-dynastic period, which helped shape the industrialisation of Germany. He attended the Technical University of Berlin and graduated in electrical engineering, after which he began working for the family company. Siemens was also a patron of the arts, and a collector of contemporary art, which he shared in exhibitions at the company's offices. He founded the Carl Friedrich von Siemens Foundation in 1960, which primarily supports scientific research and education in Germany. Siemens was married twice and had two daughters, one of whom, Erika, became a noted writer and journalist. His lasting legacy is his contribution to the expansion of his family's company and the industrialisation of Germany, not his controversial political views.
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Wilhelm Brückner (December 11, 1884 Baden-Baden-August 18, 1954 Nußdorf) also known as Wilhelm Bruckner was a German bodyguard.
He was a member of the Nazi Party and a close associate of Adolf Hitler. Brückner served as Hitler's Personal Adjutant and Cabinet Chief from 1933 to 1940. He was responsible for managing Hitler's appointments and keeping his daily schedule organized. Brückner was also involved in several important Nazi events such as the Machtergreifung, the Reichsparteitag rallies, and the 1936 Olympics in Berlin. However, he fell out of favor with Hitler in 1940 and was forced to resign from his position. After World War II, Brückner was arrested by the Allies and tried for war crimes. He was sentenced to ten years in prison but was released in 1949 due to ill health. Brückner died in 1954 at the age of 69.
During his time as Hitler's personal adjutant, Brückner was known for his strict adherence to protocol and his loyalty to the Führer. He was also a part of Hitler's inner circle, which gave him significant power and influence within the Nazi Party. Brückner was particularly close to Eva Braun, Hitler's mistress, and often arranged for her to spend time with the Führer. He was also present during Hitler's final moments in the Führerbunker in April 1945.
One of Brückner's most significant contributions to the Nazi Party was his involvement in the planning of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, which stripped German Jews of their citizenship and legal rights. Brückner was appointed to lead the Department for Domestic Political Affairs in the Reich Chancellery in 1938, which gave him broad control over a range of domestic policies, including the persecution of Jews.
Brückner's downfall came in 1940 when he was implicated in a scheme to supply inferior quality ammunition to the German army. Hitler was outraged by the scandal, and Brückner was forced to resign his position. After the war, Brückner was tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity, including his role in the implementation of anti-Semitic laws in Germany. Despite his conviction, he maintained his loyalty to Hitler until his death in 1954.
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Eva Schulze-Knabe (May 11, 1907 Pirna-July 15, 1976 Dresden) was a German personality.
She is best known for her work in promoting and preserving traditional German folk music. Schulze-Knabe was an accomplished vocalist and musician, who believed that Germany's cultural heritage was at risk of being lost forever. In the 1930s, she founded the Saxon Folk Song Archive, which collected and documented thousands of traditional German folk songs from the Saxony region.
During World War II, Schulze-Knabe worked as a nurse and music therapist. After the war, she continued her work in promoting traditional German music and founded a music school in Dresden. She also wrote books about German folk music and collaborated with various artists and musicians to create albums that celebrated Germany's cultural heritage.
Schulze-Knabe was a controversial figure, as she was accused of promoting Nazi ideology through her work. However, she denied these accusations and claimed that her focus was solely on preserving traditional German culture. Despite the controversy surrounding her, Schulze-Knabe's contributions to German music and culture continue to be celebrated to this day.
In addition to her work in preserving traditional German folk music, Eva Schulze-Knabe was also a respected musicologist and scholar. She conducted extensive research on the history and evolution of German folk music, and was sought after as a lecturer and speaker on the subject. Schulze-Knabe was also an advocate for the rights of musicians and artists, and worked with various organizations to improve their working conditions and ensure their recognition and compensation. She was known for her passionate and unwavering commitment to preserving German cultural traditions and promoting the country's unique musical heritage. Even today, several schools and music organizations in Germany have been named in her honor.
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Friedrich Leopold Graf zu Stolberg-Stolberg (November 7, 1750 Bad Bramstedt-December 5, 1819 Osnabrück) also known as Friedrich Leopold Grafen zu Stolberg-Stolberg was a German personality.
He was a poet, historian, and an important figure of the German Romanticism movement. Stolberg-Stolberg was born into an aristocratic family and his education focused heavily on languages, history, and literature. His writings often dealt with themes of freedom, individualism, and love for nature.
Stolberg-Stolberg was known to have close relationships with other prominent German Romantics, such as Goethe and Schiller. He also played a significant role in the literary circle of the "Sturm und Drang" movement.
Aside from his literary achievements, Stolberg-Stolberg played an active role in politics during the French Revolution and was involved in the development of the German Confederation. He eventually retired from political life and spent his later years focusing on his writing.
Today, Stolberg-Stolberg is remembered as an influential figure in German literature and Romanticism. His works continue to be studied and appreciated by scholars and readers alike.
Stolberg-Stolberg married three times and had a total of eleven children. His first two marriages were to sisters, but both marriages ended in divorce. In 1793, he married Caroline von Münch-Bellinghausen, with whom he had eight children. Stolberg-Stolberg was also known for his interest in the occult, and he wrote extensively on the subject. He was a member of several secret societies, including the Freemasons, and was also interested in alchemy and astrology. In addition to his literary and political achievements, Stolberg-Stolberg was also a philanthropist and founded a number of charities to help the poor and disadvantaged. He died in 1819 in Osnabrück, where he is buried. His legacy continues to live on through his many contributions to literature, politics, and society.
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Robert Koldewey (September 10, 1855 Bad Blankenburg-February 4, 1925 Berlin) was a German architect and archaeologist.
He is renowned for his work in the excavation of the ancient city of Babylon, which he carried out from 1899 to 1914. Koldewey was educated at the Vienna Polytechnic Institute and the Technical University of Berlin. He achieved great success in his architectural career, designing several notable buildings such as the German embassy in Istanbul, Turkey. Koldewey's interest in archaeology led him to carry out his first excavation in Asia Minor in 1882. He then went on to participate in several excavations in Greece, Italy, and Egypt. However, his most important contribution to archaeology was his work in Babylon, where he made groundbreaking discoveries about the city's history and culture. His excavation methods were considered pioneering for their time and remain influential today. Koldewey is remembered as one of the greatest archaeologists of his era.
Koldewey's work in Babylon included the discovery of the Ishtar Gate, one of the city's most important structures, which he carefully restored and reconstructed. He also excavated the partially intact royal palace of Nebuchadnezzar II and the processional way, a pathway dotted with elaborate artwork and temples. Koldewey's meticulous record keeping and attention to detail allowed subsequent archaeologists to continue working on the site after his departure. In addition to his work in Babylon, Koldewey was also a respected scholar, publishing numerous articles and books on ancient architecture and culture. He was awarded several honorary doctorates and became a member of several prestigious scientific institutions. Koldewey's legacy continues to influence archaeological practices, and his work in Babylon remains a significant contribution to the understanding of ancient Mesopotamian civilization.
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Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette (January 12, 1780 Nohra-June 16, 1849 Basel) was a German personality.
De Wette was a theologian and biblical scholar, known for his critical analysis of the Bible and his role in the development of biblical criticism. He is particularly well known for his work on the Old Testament, which he believed should be studied in its historical and cultural context, rather than taken as literal truth. In addition to his scholarly work, de Wette was active in the political and social movements of his time, and was a supporter of liberal reforms and national unity. He served as a member of the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848, and later as professor of theology at the University of Basel.
De Wette was born in the duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, and early in his life, he felt drawn to the church. He studied at the University of Jena and eventually became a professor of theology himself. De Wette's views often put him at odds with traditional religious beliefs, and he faced criticism and even condemnation from some sectors of society for his unorthodox views.
Throughout his career, de Wette wrote extensively on theology, biblical criticism, and philosophy. His writings include contributions to the understanding of the Book of Job, and the study of the Old Testament as a whole. In his later years, he worked on a critical edition of the New Testament.
De Wette's approach to theology was highly influential, and his ideas played a significant role in shaping the development of biblical scholarship. His work remains highly regarded today, and he is often considered one of the most important figures in the history of biblical criticism.
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Thomas Dehler (December 14, 1897 Lichtenfels-July 21, 1967 Wiesenttal) was a German politician and lawyer.
He was a member of the Free Democratic Party (FDP) and served as the Federal Minister of Justice from 1949 to 1953 under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. Dehler was known for his commitment to democracy and human rights and played a key role in rebuilding the German legal system after World War II. He was also a vocal advocate for European integration and worked to strengthen ties between Germany and other European nations. After leaving office, Dehler continued to be actively involved in politics and played a leading role in the formation of the FDP's "Godesberg Program," which helped to modernize the party and broaden its appeal.
Dehler was born in Lichtenfels, Germany, in 1897. He studied law at the University of Munich and completed his doctoral degree in 1925. During the Weimar Republic era, he worked for various legal institutions, including the Supreme Court and the Ministry of Justice. He joined the FDP in 1946 and quickly rose through the party ranks.
As Federal Minister of Justice, Dehler was responsible for implementing many of the legal reforms that were necessary to rebuild a democratic Germany. He played a key role in drafting the Basic Law, which served as the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany. He also worked to modernize the legal system and ensure that it was based on principles of fairness and justice.
After leaving office, Dehler continued to be active in politics and was instrumental in shaping the direction of the FDP. He was a strong supporter of European integration and believed that greater cooperation between European nations was essential for peace and prosperity. He played a leading role in the development of the Godesberg Program, which helped to transform the FDP into a modern, social-liberal party.
Dehler passed away in Wiesenttal, Germany, in 1967 at the age of 69. He is remembered as a champion of democracy and human rights and a key figure in the rebuilding of a free and democratic Germany after World War II.
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Friedrich Accum (March 29, 1769 Bückeburg-June 28, 1838 Berlin) was a German chemist.
He is known for his pioneering work in the field of analytical chemistry, particularly in the development of methods for the identification and quantification of various chemical substances. Accum's contributions to the field of chemistry include the discovery of various organic compounds, the identification of nitrogen compounds in soil, and the development of improved methods for gas analysis. He also played a key role in the establishment of modern food regulations, highlighting the dangers of food adulteration in his book "A Treatise on Adulterations of Food and Culinary Poisons", which called for stricter food safety standards. Throughout his life, Accum was a prolific author, publishing over 100 scientific papers and several influential books on topics ranging from chemistry and manufacturing to food safety and public health.
Accum was born in Bückeburg, Germany, and showed an early interest in science. He began studying chemistry in Hanover under the instruction of Johann Tobias Lowitz, a prominent chemist of the time. After completing his studies, Accum worked as a chemist in several European cities, including Hamburg, Amsterdam, and London. It was during his time in London that Accum gained fame for his work on gas analysis, which he applied to the study of air pollution in the city.
In addition to his scientific work, Accum was a vocal advocate for social and political reforms. He was a supporter of the abolition of slavery and spoke out against harsh working conditions and child labor in factories. He also advocated for the establishment of educational institutions accessible to all, regardless of socioeconomic status.
Despite his many accomplishments, Accum faced financial difficulties throughout his life. He died in Berlin in 1838, largely forgotten by the scientific community. However, his legacy would live on, as his work helped pave the way for many important discoveries and advancements in the field of chemistry. Today, he is remembered as a pioneer in analytical chemistry and a champion of public health and safety.
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Lesser Ury (November 7, 1861 Międzychód-October 18, 1931 Berlin) was a German personality.
He was a painter and printmaker known for his impressionistic landscapes, cityscapes, and portraits. Ury initially trained in graphics but later turned to painting, studying at the Academy of Arts in Düsseldorf and the Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin. He gained recognition in the art world for his expressive use of paint and ability to capture the changing light and atmosphere of his surroundings. Ury's work was featured in many exhibitions throughout his lifetime, and he received numerous awards and honors for his contributions to the art world. Today, he is considered one of the leading impressionist painters of his time and his work can be found in museums and private collections worldwide.
Ury was born into a Jewish family and began his career as a commercial apprentice at a clothing store. After receiving financial support from a relative, he was able to pursue his passion for art. He traveled extensively throughout his life, often painting en plein air (outdoors), and his works were inspired by his travels to Italy, France, and the Netherlands. He was also a member of the Berlin Secession, a group of artists who were opposed to the conservative art establishment in Germany.
Despite his success as an artist, Ury's personal life was marked by tragedy. His first wife died in childbirth, and his second wife, the painter Kate Steinitz, died at a young age as well. He also lost two sons, one in World War I and another to suicide. Ury continued to paint until his death at the age of 69, leaving behind a legacy that continues to inspire artists and art lovers to this day.
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Henryk Grossman (April 14, 1881 Kraków-November 24, 1950 Leipzig) was a German economist.
He was known for his contributions to Marxist economics, particularly his analysis of the economic theory of Karl Marx. Grossman was also a member of the Frankfurt School, a group of influential Marxist scholars and intellectuals.
Grossman was born in Kraków, which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He studied economics and philosophy at the University of Vienna before moving to Germany in 1903. In Germany, he became involved in Marxist politics and joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
During World War I, Grossman was a pacifist and opposed the war. He was forced to flee Germany as a result and spent several years in Switzerland, where he continued to study and write about Marxist economics.
After the war, Grossman returned to Germany and became a professor of economics at the University of Leipzig. He continued to write and publish influential works on Marxist economics, including his most famous book, "The Law of Accumulation and Breakdown of the Capitalist System."
Grossman's work on Marxist economics had a significant impact on later Marxist scholars, including the likes of Ernest Mandel and Paul Sweezy. Grossman died in Leipzig in 1950, leaving behind a legacy as one of the most important Marxist economists of the 20th century.
In addition to his work on Marxist economics, Henryk Grossman was also a significant figure in the labor movement. He was an active member of the International Workingmen's Association and worked closely with Rosa Luxemburg, a fellow Marxist and revolutionary. Grossman was also involved in the anti-fascist movement in Germany and advocated for workers' rights throughout his life. Despite being forced to flee Germany during World War I, Grossman remained committed to the country and its people, writing extensively about the economic and political challenges facing Germany in the aftermath of the war. His contributions to Marxist theory and his commitment to social justice and workers' rights continue to inspire scholars and activists around the world.
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Karl Georg Christian von Staudt (January 24, 1798 Rothenburg ob der Tauber-June 1, 1867 Erlangen) was a German mathematician.
Von Staudt attended the University of Göttingen, where he studied under the famous mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. He is most well-known for his work in projective geometry, where he developed the theory of poles and polars. This theory proved to be very useful in the study of conic sections and other geometric figures. Von Staudt also made significant contributions to the study of algebraic curves, especially in regards to the application of calculus to these curves. In addition to his mathematical work, von Staudt was also a professor of mathematics at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, where he taught for over 30 years.
Von Staudt's work in projective geometry was influenced by his deep interest in philosophy, particularly the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. He saw projective geometry as a way to study the fundamental concepts of space and shape, which he believed were closely tied to philosophical concepts such as intuition and perception. Von Staudt's ideas on the philosophy of mathematics were considered groundbreaking in his time, and they helped lay the foundation for the development of a new branch of mathematics known as axiomatic geometry. Von Staudt's legacy continues to be felt in modern mathematics, where his work on poles and polars is still widely studied and applied to many different fields of study.
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Eilhard Mitscherlich (January 7, 1794 Wilhelmshaven-August 28, 1863 Schöneberg) was a German scientist and chemist.
He is best known for his work in the field of analytical chemistry and mineralogy. Mitscherlich discovered the phenomenon of isomorphism in 1819, which later led to the development of modern crystallography. He also developed a method for determining the composition of minerals, which he called the "dry way analysis." In addition to his work in chemistry, Mitscherlich was also interested in the history of science and the philosophy of science. He published several books on these topics, including a biography of the famous chemist Justus von Liebig. Despite facing numerous challenges throughout his career, including financial difficulties and health problems, Mitscherlich made significant contributions to the field of chemistry and was widely respected by his colleagues. Today, he is considered one of the most important chemists of his time.
Mitscherlich was born into a family of scientists and engineers, and his interest in science was apparent from a young age. He studied at the University of Göttingen and later at the University of Berlin, where he received his doctorate in chemistry in 1816.
In addition to his work on isomorphism, Mitscherlich made several other significant contributions to the field of chemistry. He developed a method for the synthesis of benzoic acid and discovered the element selenium. He also did pioneering work in the field of electrochemistry and studied the behavior of gases and liquids.
Mitscherlich was a prolific writer and contributed many articles to scientific journals. He also authored several books, including "Lehrbuch der Chemie" (Textbook of Chemistry), which was widely used in German universities.
In his later years, Mitscherlich suffered from poor health, which made it difficult for him to continue his research. He died in Schöneberg in 1863, at the age of 69. His contributions to the field of chemistry continue to be remembered and celebrated today.
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Rupert Mayer (January 23, 1876 Stuttgart-November 1, 1945 Munich) was a German chaplain.
He was known for his staunch opposition to the Nazi regime and his outspoken criticism of their policies. He was imprisoned multiple times for his activism, and eventually was sent to a concentration camp in 1940. Despite his deteriorating health, he continued to minister to other prisoners until he was liberated in 1945. He passed away shortly after the end of the war due to his poor health. After his death, Mayer was remembered as a symbol of resistance against the Nazis and was later beatified by the Catholic Church.
Before becoming a chaplain, Rupert Mayer served as a soldier in World War I, during which he suffered several injuries including the loss of an eye. After the war, he dedicated his life to the Catholic Church and was ordained as a priest in 1921. He became known for his compassionate outreach to those affected by poverty, illness, and war. During the rise of the Nazi party, Mayer publicly spoke out against their persecution of Jews and their policies that went against Christian values. He was influential in organizing protests and supporting resistance movements. Despite being banned from speaking in public and being under constant surveillance, he continued to fight for justice until his arrest in 1940. His legacy continues to inspire and serve as a reminder that public figures can have a positive impact by standing up against injustice, even in times of great danger.
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Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 Darmstadt-April 18, 1873 Munich) otherwise known as Justus Liebig was a German scientist and chemist. His child is called Johanna Liebig.
Liebig is considered to be the founder of organic chemistry and is best known for his work in agricultural chemistry. He developed the principles of fertilizer application and created the synthetic fertilizer industry. Liebig also discovered the process of saponification and made significant contributions to the understanding of metabolism, specifically the role of enzymes. He was a professor of chemistry at the University of Giessen and later at the University of Munich. In addition to his scientific work, Liebig was a prolific writer and was known for his popular lectures on chemistry. He received numerous honors throughout his career, including the Copley Medal from the Royal Society of London.
Liebig was born into a family of bankers and intended to study pharmacy, but he eventually switched to chemistry. He earned his doctorate in chemistry from the University of Erlangen in 1823. In addition to his scientific work, Liebig was also a social activist and advocated for improvements in public health and nutrition. He worked on developing a high-quality infant formula and is credited with inventing the meat extract known as Liebig's Extract of Meat. Liebig also invented a process for making beef bouillon cubes, which are still widely used today. He died in Munich in 1873 at the age of 69. Today, the Justus Liebig University in Giessen, Germany is named in his honor.
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Christian Martin Frähn (June 4, 1782 Rostock-August 16, 1851 Saint Petersburg) was a German personality.
Frähn was a notable linguist, scholar of Eastern and Northern European languages, and historian. He is best known for his extensive work on the Turkic languages and literature, particularly the Chuvash and Old Turkic languages. He was also a key figure in establishing the study of Estonian and Livonian languages in academic circles.
Frähn was fluent in over 20 languages and dialects, including Arabic, Persian, and Russian. He worked as a lecturer in oriental languages at the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia) and later served as the director of the Asiatic Museum in Saint Petersburg. Frähn was widely respected for his expertise and contributed significantly to the study of philology and linguistics in Europe.
In addition to his work in linguistics, Christian Martin Frähn was also an accomplished historian. He was a leading authority on the history of the Golden Horde, the medieval Mongol state that ruled over much of Russia and Eastern Europe. His book, "Die historischen Nachrichten über das Goldene Horde," remains a seminal work on the topic to this day.
Frähn's contributions to the study of languages and history were recognized and honored in various ways. He was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir by the Russian government, and his name was included on the Roll of Honor of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg.
Despite his many achievements, Frähn's personal life was marked by tragedy. He lost his wife and four children to illness, and he himself suffered from poor health throughout his life. Nonetheless, he continued to work tirelessly until his death in 1851, leaving behind a lasting legacy in the fields of linguistics and history.
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Albert von Le Coq (September 8, 1860 Berlin-April 21, 1930 Berlin) was a German personality.
He was an explorer, archaeologist, and art collector who is best known for his expeditions to Central Asia and his discovery of several important archaeological sites. Von Le Coq was also a prominent figure in the development of art history in Germany and played a key role in establishing the Berlin Museum of East Asian Art. He embarked on his first expedition to central Asia in 1902, and over the next two decades, he made several important discoveries, including the Kizil Caves and its collection of Buddhist art. Apart from his work in archaeology, Von Le Coq was also an avid collector of art and artifacts, and he amassed a vast collection of Central Asian and East Asian art throughout his lifetime.
In addition to his archaeological and art collecting work, Albert von Le Coq was a writer and published numerous books and articles on his findings and experiences in Central Asia. He was also a skilled linguist, fluent in several languages, including Russian, Chinese, and Turkish, which were invaluable for his expeditions. Von Le Coq faced several challenges during his explorations, including bandit attacks, extreme weather conditions, and political instability in the region. Despite these challenges, he remained dedicated to his work and contributed significantly to the field of Central Asian studies. His legacy continues to inspire and inform researchers and scholars today, and many of his discoveries are now housed in museums and collections around the world.
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Maria Feodorovna (October 25, 1759 Szczecin-November 5, 1828 Pavlovsk Palace) a.k.a. Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg was a German personality. She had ten children, Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia, Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna of Russia, Alexander I of Russia, Nicholas I of Russia, Anna Pavlovna of Russia, Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia, Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia, Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich of Russia and Grand Duchess Olga Pavlovna of Russia.
Maria Feodorovna married Grand Duke Paul of Russia, who later became Emperor Paul I of Russia, in 1776. She was known for her beauty and intelligence, and played an influential role in the Russian court. Maria Feodorovna was an advocate for education and culture, and supported the arts during her reign as Empress. She was also a devoted mother and wife, and even after her husband's assassination, she continued to advise her children on matters of politics and diplomacy. Maria Feodorovna lived the last years of her life in Pavlovsk Palace, which she helped to design and decorate, and passed away at the age of 69.
After her husband's death, Maria Feodorovna became the dowager empress and played an important role in the upbringing of her grandchildren, who would later become rulers of various European countries. She kept in contact with her family and friends in Germany and corresponded with them regularly. Maria Feodorovna was also known for her charitable work, and established several philanthropic organizations in Russia.
During the Napoleonic Wars, Maria Feodorovna helped to organize the defense of Russia and supported the troops by raising funds and providing supplies. She was deeply patriotic and wrote letters to her son, Alexander I, urging him to fight for his country's independence.
Maria Feodorovna's legacy continues to live on in Russia, with several landmarks and institutions named after her. She is also remembered for her keen intellect, her love of culture and the arts, and her dedication to her family and country.
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Louis Schmeisser (February 5, 1848 Zöllnitz-March 23, 1917 Suhl) was a German personality. His children are called Hugo Schmeisser and Hans Schmeisser.
Louis Schmeisser was a renowned German firearms designer and manufacturer who is best known for his contributions to the development of automatic weapons. He founded his own weapons production company, the Louis Schmeisser Waffenfabrik, in Suhl, Germany in 1875.
During his career, Schmeisser created a number of innovative designs for firearms, including the first practical automatic pistol, the C-96, which would later become famous as the "Broomhandle Mauser". He was also a pioneer in the field of submachine guns, developing one of the first successful models, the MP-18, which saw extensive use during World War I.
Schmeisser's legacy in the firearms industry extends beyond Germany, with many of his designs influencing weapon development around the world. His son Hugo Schmeisser also became a renowned firearms designer, known for his work on the MP-40 submachine gun during World War II.
Louis Schmeisser was born in Zollnitz, a small town in Germany on February 5, 1848. His family was known for their expertise in metalworking, which influenced his interest in firearms manufacturing. In 1862, he began his apprenticeship as a gunsmith in Suhl, a prominent center for the German firearms industry.
After his apprenticeship, Schmeisser worked for a few different weapons manufacturers before finally establishing his own weapons production company in 1875, the Louis Schmeisser Waffenfabrik. The company became famous for producing high-quality firearms, which were sold across Europe and even in the United States.
Schmeisser’s greatest contributions to the firearms industry were in the field of automatic weapons. He patented his first automatic pistol in 1896, which was later transformed into the iconic Broomhandle Mauser. This innovative design allowed for semi-automatic fire with a detachable box magazine, which was a significant advancement in the industry at the time.
Schmeisser continued to develop new designs for automatic weapons, leading to the creation of the MP-18 submachine gun in 1918. The MP-18 was the first real submachine gun and had a significant impact on the development of small arms during World War I.
Schmeisser’s impact on the firearms industry was significant, influencing weapon design not only in Germany but around the world. He passed away in 1917 in Suhl, Germany, leaving behind a lasting legacy in the field of firearms design and manufacturing.
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Felix Steiner (May 23, 1896 Nesterov-May 12, 1966 Munich) was a German personality.
He served as a high-ranking officer in the Waffen-SS during World War II and was one of the founding members of the organization. Steiner was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds, one of Nazi Germany's highest military honors. After the war, he was tried and acquitted of war crimes. Steiner later worked as a consultant in the defense industry and authored several books on military strategy. He remained a controversial figure due to his association with the SS, and his military career remains a subject of debate and scrutiny among historians.
Felix Steiner was born in Nesterov, East Prussia, which is now located in Russia. Prior to his involvement in the Nazi party and Waffen-SS, he served in World War I and then joined the Freikorps, a paramilitary organization comprised of former soldiers. Steiner joined the Nazi party in 1929 and was later appointed as the head of the Waffen-SS in 1943. He commanded several units and fought in a number of battles, including the Battle of Moscow and the Battle of Stalingrad.
Despite his controversial past, Steiner was widely respected for his military knowledge and tactics. He was promoted to the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer and held several high-ranking positions in the military. He was responsible for creating the elite Waffen-SS units and implemented new training methods for soldiers.
After World War II, Steiner was arrested and put on trial for war crimes. However, he was acquitted due to lack of evidence. He settled in Munich and worked as a consultant for the defense industry, providing advice and expertise on military tactics and warfare. He also authored several books on war strategy, including "Verlorene Siege" ("Lost Victories"), which chronicles his experiences in World War II.
Throughout his life, Steiner remained a controversial figure due to his association with the Nazi party and SS. Some still viewed him as a hero for his military accomplishments, while others condemned him for his role in the war and his involvement in the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime.
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Julius Richard Petri (May 31, 1852 Barmen-December 20, 1921 Zeitz) was a German bacteriologist, physician and army doctor.
He is best known for developing the Petri dish, a valuable tool in microbiology for isolating and cultivating bacteria and other microorganisms. Petri studied medicine at the Kaiser Wilhelm Academy for Military Physicians and worked for the German Army Medical Corps. He later became a professor of hygiene at the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin. In addition to his work with the Petri dish, Petri made significant contributions to the study of tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. He was also an advocate for improved sanitation and public health measures. Petri's legacy continues to be felt in the field of microbiology and his invention remains a fundamental tool for laboratory research.
Petri's interest in microbiology began during his time in the German Army Medical Corps, where he worked at a hospital for contagious diseases. He became fascinated by the study of microorganisms and began developing new techniques for their study. In addition to the Petri dish, he also invented the Petri slide, a device for studying microorganisms under a microscope.
Petri's work with tuberculosis was particularly groundbreaking. He discovered that the bacteria responsible for the disease could be spread through the air and devised new methods for preventing its transmission. He also emphasized the importance of public health measures like clean water, sanitation, and vaccination.
During World War I, Petri worked as a medical officer on the front lines, where he continued to study infectious diseases and develop new treatments. He was highly respected by his colleagues and students for his dedication to the field of microbiology and his innovative approach to research.
Today, the Petri dish remains one of the most widely used tools in microbiology and is essential for the study of bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms. Petri's contributions to the field have had a lasting impact on our understanding of infectious diseases and how to prevent them.
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