Here are 12 famous musicians from Spain died at 60:
Pedro Salinas (November 27, 1891 Madrid-December 4, 1951 Boston) was a Spanish personality.
Pedro Salinas was a renowned poet, essayist, and literary critic, who was considered one of the most important literary figures of the 20th century in Spain. He was a professor of literature at the University of Murcia, the University of Madrid, and the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA. Salinas was a member of the "Generation of 27", a group of Spanish writers that included Federico García Lorca, Rafael Alberti, and Vicente Aleixandre, among others. His literary work is characterized by its lyrical and erotic tones, and he is known for his collections of poems such as "La Voz a ti debida" ("The Voice to You Due") and "Razón de amor" ("Reason for Love"). Salinas was also a notable translator of contemporary English and French literature into Spanish. In addition to his literary work, he was known for his involvement in the anti-Franco movement and spent several years in exile during the Spanish Civil War.
Salinas was born into a middle-class family and was the youngest of his siblings. He studied at the Instituto Libre de Enseñanza where he was influenced by the philosopher José Ortega y Gasset. He later went on to study at the University of Madrid, where he earned a degree in humanities, and then a doctorate in literature. In 1919, Salinas traveled to Paris where he was exposed to the works of the French Surrealists, which had a significant impact on his own poetry.
Throughout his academic career, Salinas was dedicated to educating his students on modern literature, emphasizing the importance of contemporary poetry and prose. He was a proponent of the free verse form and helped introduce it to Spain through his translations of American poets such as Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson.
Salinas' personal life was marked by a series of complicated relationships, including an intense love affair with Katherine Whitmore, an American student of his. Despite the challenges of their long-distance relationship, their correspondence was prolific and resulted in the publication of a book called "Cartas de Amor a Katherine Whitmore" ("Love Letters to Katherine Whitmore") in 1991.
Today, Salinas is recognized as a leading figure in Spanish literature, and his legacy continues to be celebrated through the annual "Premio Internacional de Poesía Ciudad de Melilla", a prestigious poetry prize named in his honor.
He died in cancer.
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Jorge Juan y Santacilia (January 5, 1713 Novelda-June 21, 1773) was a Spanish scientist.
He was known for his work in a variety of fields, including mathematics, astronomy, and engineering. Jorge Juan y Santacilia was also a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and the Royal Academy of History. He was particularly interested in naval engineering and navigation, and he worked alongside the famous mathematician Antonio de Ulloa on a mission to study the South American coast. Their observations and experiments during this mission led to significant advances in understanding the Earth's shape and the nature of gravity. In addition to his scientific contributions, Jorge Juan y Santacilia also played a role in political and diplomatic affairs, using his position and knowledge to negotiate trade agreements with other countries.
Jorge Juan y Santacilia was born in the town of Novelda, in the southeast of Spain, in 1713. He received a classical education in humanities and theology before he joined the navy as a midshipman at the age of 14. His interest in science and mathematics soon became apparent, and he began to study on his own and exchange ideas with other mathematicians and scientists.
In 1734, Jorge Juan y Santacilia was chosen to participate in the French Academy's expedition to measure the meridian arc near the equator, where he met the French mathematician Pierre Bouguer. Bouguer's work on the density of the Earth inspired him to work on similar problems and investigate the effect of the Earth's rotation on its shape.
In 1735, Jorge Juan y Santacilia was assigned to the naval department of Cádiz, where he met Antonio de Ulloa, who would become his lifelong friend and collaborator. Together, they studied navigation, physics, and astronomy, and conducted experiments to determine the Earth's shape using pendulums and astronomical observations.
Their joint mission to study the South American coast from 1735 to 1745 was sponsored by the Spanish Crown, and their findings were published in the multi-volume work "Relación histórica del viaje a la América Meridional" (1748-1758). In this work, they described the physical, geological, and biological characteristics of the regions they visited, as well as their interactions with the local population and their observations on slavery and colonialism.
Besides his scientific work, Jorge Juan y Santacilia also served as a diplomat and negotiator for the Spanish government. He traveled to Portugal, Morocco, and other countries to establish trade relations and sign treaties, applying his scientific knowledge to solve practical problems and improve the efficiency of navigation and transportation.
Jorge Juan y Santacilia died in Madrid in 1773, leaving a legacy of scientific discoveries, diplomatic achievements, and intellectual curiosity. His work contributed to the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment, and he is remembered as one of the most versatile and innovative Spanish scientists of his time.
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Manuel Azaña (January 10, 1880 Alcalá de Henares-November 4, 1940 Montauban) a.k.a. Manuel Azana was a Spanish politician.
He served as the President of the Second Spanish Republic from 1936 until 1939, during which time he led the country through the tumultuous period of the Spanish Civil War. Azaña was a dedicated republican, leftist, and anti-clericalist who advocated for progressive reforms and staunchly opposed authoritarianism. He began his career as a journalist and became involved in politics, eventually rising to the position of Minister of War in 1931. During his presidency, Azaña faced an attempted military coup by General Francisco Franco in July 1936, which led to the outbreak of the civil war. He sought assistance from other countries, including the Soviet Union, but ultimately was unable to prevent Franco's forces from securing victory in 1939. After the war, Azaña went into exile in France, where he died in 1940. He remains a controversial and influential figure in Spanish politics and history.
Azaña was born into a bourgeois family in Alcalá de Henares, and spent much of his early life studying philosophy and law. He became involved in politics at a young age, joining various republican and progressive groups. One of his most significant contributions to Spanish politics was his role in drafting the 1931 Constitution, which established the Second Spanish Republic and enshrined many progressive reforms. As Minister of War, Azaña worked to modernize the Spanish armed forces and professionalize the military. He was also a prolific writer, publishing numerous articles and books on politics and philosophy.
During the civil war, Azaña remained dedicated to the republican cause and continued to lead the government through a difficult and trying time. He faced internal opposition from factions within the republican coalition, as well as external pressure from fascist governments and paramilitary groups. Despite these challenges, Azaña remained committed to building a stronger and more democratic Spain.
After Franco's victory, Azaña remained in France, but continued to work for the republican cause. He remained committed to his ideals, and his legacy has inspired countless progressive and democratic movements in Spain and around the world. Today, he is remembered as one of the most important figures in modern Spanish history, a champion of democracy, freedom, and equality.
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Joaquín Sorolla (February 27, 1863 Valencia-August 10, 1923 Madrid) also known as Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida was a Spanish painter.
He was one of the most prominent artists of his time, known for his skillful use of light and color in his paintings. Sorolla's work often depicted scenes of everyday life, as well as landscapes and portraits, and he was particularly celebrated for his depictions of the sea.
Sorolla was born to a family of modest means in Valencia, Spain. He showed an early talent for art and, after completing his education, he moved to Madrid to study at the Academy of Fine Arts.
In 1884, Sorolla received a scholarship to study in Rome, where he was introduced to the works of the great Italian masters. He returned to Spain in 1889 and began to gain recognition for his paintings.
Sorolla's big break came in 1895 when he was invited to exhibit his work at the Paris Salon. His paintings were well received and he soon gained international recognition. He went on to exhibit his work at several other major art shows throughout Europe, including the Venice Biennale.
Sorolla was a prolific painter, producing more than 2,000 works over the course of his career. He was known for his dynamic brushwork and his ability to capture the effects of light on his subjects. His work had a profound influence on the development of modern art in Spain and beyond.
Today, Sorolla is considered one of the greatest painters of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His work can be seen in museums and galleries around the world, including the Museo Sorolla in Madrid, which was once his home and studio.
Sorolla was not only a talented painter but also a devoted family man. He married Clotilde García del Castillo in 1888, and they had three children. Clotilde often served as a model for his paintings, and the couple remained deeply in love throughout their lives.
In addition to his artistic accomplishments, Sorolla was also a philanthropist. He was involved in several projects aimed at improving the lives of disadvantaged children in Spain. One of his most significant contributions was the creation of a school for the blind in Valencia, which he founded together with his wife.
Sorolla's life was cut short in 1923 when he died unexpectedly from a stroke while working on a painting in his garden. He was mourned by art lovers and admirers around the world. Today, his legacy lives on not only through his paintings but also through the foundation that bears his name, which continues to support artistic and educational initiatives in Spain.
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Miguel Primo de Rivera (January 8, 1870 Jerez de la Frontera-March 16, 1930 Paris) was a Spanish politician. His children are José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Pilar Primo de Rivera, 1st Countess of the Castle of La Mota and Miguel Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia.
Miguel Primo de Rivera was a military general who served as the Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930. He founded the Spanish Patriotic Union, a fascist political party that aimed at eliminating corruption and introducing economic and social reforms in the country. As the Prime Minister, he introduced numerous measures such as universal suffrage, labor reforms, and the creation of social security systems. He also suppressed political opposition, banned labor strikes and restricted civil liberties. His regime was characterized by authoritarianism, military rule, and censorship. However, his reforms failed to solve the country's economic problems and the public discontent increased, leading to his downfall in 1930. After his fall from power, he lived in exile in Paris until his death in 1930.
During his time in power, Miguel Primo de Rivera also led a campaign against the Spanish language in Catalan and Basque regions, promoting Spanish as the sole official language of the country. He also initiated the construction of numerous public works such as roads, schools, and hospitals, which were aimed at modernizing the country's infrastructure. Primo de Rivera's regime saw a boom in the tourism industry, as he encouraged tourism as a way of boosting the country's economy. However, his authoritarian rule and suppression of freedoms led to his unpopularity with many Spaniards. After his downfall, Spain underwent a period of political instability, culminating in the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936.
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Mariano Álvarez de Castro (September 8, 1749 Granada-January 21, 1810 Figueres) was a Spanish personality.
He was a military officer, nobleman, and politician in the late 18th and early 19th century. He served as Governor-General of the Philippines from 1790 to 1793 and again from 1806 to 1810. During his first term, he implemented reforms aimed at improving the economy and infrastructure of the Philippines. He also enforced stricter regulations on the trading of tobacco, which was the colony's major export commodity.
In 1808, when Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Spain and installed his brother as king, Álvarez de Castro refused to recognize him and supported the Spanish resistance. He played a key role in the defense of the Spanish-held fortress of Figueres against the French during the Peninsular War. He died in Figueres in 1810, during the siege of the fortress, after being hit by a cannonball.
Álvarez de Castro is remembered for his military service, his contribution to the modernization of the Philippines, and his loyalty to the Spanish crown during a time of crisis. He was also a prominent member of the nobility and a patron of the arts and sciences.
In addition to his military and political career, Mariano Álvarez de Castro was also a notable patron of the arts and sciences. He was a collector of art and books, and supported the publication of works by Spanish writers and intellectuals. He also established the Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country in the Philippines during his first term as Governor-General, which aimed to promote economic development and education in the colony.
Álvarez de Castro came from an aristocratic family and was educated at the Royal Academy of Mathematics and Nobles Arts of Granada. He also had a keen interest in engineering and architecture, and was involved in the construction of several key projects in the Philippines, including the rebuilding of the Intramuros after a destructive earthquake in 1787.
Despite his efforts to improve the Philippines, Álvarez de Castro faced criticism from some quarters for his policies, particularly his treatment of the local population. Some historians have accused him of being harsh towards the Filipinos and prioritizing the interests of Spanish elites.
Nevertheless, Álvarez de Castro remains an important figure in Philippine and Spanish history, and his legacy is still felt today in the fields of economics, architecture, and politics.
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Jaime Gil de Biedma (November 13, 1929 Nava de la Asunción-April 5, 1990) otherwise known as Jaime Gil de Biedma y Alba was a Spanish screenwriter.
Born into an aristocratic family in Castile, Spain, Gil de Biedma was educated in a Jesuit school before attending the University of Barcelona. There, he became involved in the intellectual and artistic scene of the city, befriending poets such as José Agustín Goytisolo and Carlos Barral.
Gil de Biedma worked for several years in his family's businesses before moving to Madrid and dedicating himself to writing. He published several collections of poetry, including Compañeros de viaje (Travel Companions) and Las personas del verbo (People of the Verb), which dealt with themes of love, desire, and homosexuality.
In addition to his poetry, Gil de Biedma also wrote screenplays for films such as Los Pazos de Ulloa (The Ulloa Estate) and La Morte Rouge (The Red Death). He was a member of the Generation of '50, a group of poets who emerged in Spain in the 1950s and sought to modernize Spanish poetry through experimentation with form and style.
Gil de Biedma is considered one of the most important poets of post-war Spain and a key figure in the history of Spanish literature. He passed away in Barcelona at the age of 60 due to complications from AIDS.
Despite his success as a poet and screenwriter, Gil de Biedma was known for his reserved personality and reluctance to engage in public life. He was openly gay at a time when homosexuality was still widely stigmatized in Spain, and his poetry often dealt with the complexities and contradictions of homosexual desire. His work has been celebrated for its lyricism, its exploration of personal and social identity, and its sharp critique of Spanish society under the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. Since his death in 1990, his poems have become increasingly influential among younger generations of Spanish writers, and he is now considered a canonical figure in contemporary Spanish literature. Gil de Biedma's legacy has also been celebrated through numerous literary awards and cultural events, including the creation of the Jaime Gil de Biedma National Poetry Prize in his honor.
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Don José Vidal (March 12, 1763 A Coruña-August 22, 1823) was a Spanish personality.
He was known for being a jurist and politician, as well as a member of the Cortes of Cádiz, which drafted and adopted the Spanish Constitution of 1812. Vidal also served as the Mayor of A Coruña and was a supporter of the Enlightenment ideals of freedom, equality, and popular sovereignty. Despite facing opposition and persecution from the conservative powers of his time, Vidal remained true to his ideals and fought for the rights of common people. His legacy continues to inspire many in Spain and beyond.
Don José Vidal was born in A Coruña, Galicia, Spain to a family of jurists. He received his education in law at the University of Santiago de Compostela and went on to work as a lawyer and judge. Vidal's political career began in 1809 when he was appointed as the Mayor of A Coruña by the French authorities during their occupation of Spain. However, he refused to collaborate with the French and was imprisoned for several months.
After the Spanish War of Independence ended in 1814, Vidal remained active in politics and was elected to the Cortes of Madrid. He was a vocal supporter of the liberal values of democracy, civil rights, and constitutionalism. During his time in the Cortes of Cádiz, Vidal played a crucial role in drafting the Constitution of 1812, which enshrined human rights and established a system of popular sovereignty based on the principle of one-man, one-vote.
Vidal's political views and actions put him at odds with the conservative establishment of Spain, including the absolutist monarch Ferdinand VII. In 1820, Vidal was arrested and imprisoned in Madrid for his support of the liberal Constitution. He was released in 1822 and returned to his hometown of A Coruña, where he died a year later at the age of 60.
Despite facing adversity throughout his life, Don José Vidal remained a committed advocate for the values of the Enlightenment and constitutionalism. He is considered one of the most significant figures of the Spanish liberal movement and was a source of inspiration for many generations of Spanish progressives.
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Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau (March 2, 1842-September 7, 1902) was a Spanish writer.
He was born in Madrid, Spain and had a passion for writing from an early age. In his youth, he wrote poetry and plays but eventually found his niche in writing prose. Some of his literary works include "El anacronópete," considered to be one of the first science fiction novels in Spanish literature, and "Blanca Sol," a romance novel.
Aside from his writing, Gaspar y Rimbau was also known for his involvement in politics. He served as a member of the Spanish Parliament and was a vocal advocate for the rights of the poor and working-class.
Gaspar y Rimbau's legacy continues to live on through his literary works, which have been translated into multiple languages and remain popular to this day.
In addition to his involvement in politics, Gaspar y Rimbau was also a successful journalist. He worked for several newspapers, including El Imparcial and La Época, where he wrote articles on various social issues. Throughout his career, Gaspar y Rimbau remained committed to advocating for social justice and equality. He was known for his progressive views on issues such as women's rights, education, and workers' rights, and he used his writing to promote these causes.
Gaspar y Rimbau's literary career began in earnest with the publication of "El anacronópete" in 1887. The novel tells the story of a group of friends who build a time-traveling machine and travel to different historical eras. The book was highly innovative for its time and paved the way for the development of science fiction as a genre in Spanish literature. Gaspar y Rimbau followed up the success of "El anacronópete" with several other novels, including "Blanca Sol," which was published in 1896 and tells the story of a young woman's journey to find love and happiness.
Gaspar y Rimbau's contributions to literature and politics have made him one of the most celebrated writers of the late 19th century in Spain. His works continue to be studied and appreciated by readers and scholars around the world, and his legacy as a champion of social justice remains an inspiration to many.
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Arturo Barea (September 20, 1897 Badajoz-December 24, 1957 Faringdon) was a Spanish writer and novelist.
Barea is best known for his autobiographical trilogy, titled "The Forging of a Rebel," which chronicles his experiences during the Spanish Civil War and his life as a Spanish immigrant in England. The books gained widespread critical acclaim and established Barea as one of the foremost Spanish writers of the 20th century.
During the Spanish Civil War, Barea served as a Republican journalist and propaganda officer. He was later forced to flee Spain due to his political views and sought refuge in England. There, he worked for the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) as a Spanish language broadcaster.
Barea's literary career began with the publication of his famous trilogy in the 1940s. In his writing, he explored the themes of identity, exile, and political conflict, drawing inspiration from his own life experiences.
In addition to his fiction, Barea also wrote essays and translated works by authors such as Shakespeare and Dickens into Spanish. His contributions to Spanish literature and his legacy as a writer have been widely recognized and celebrated both in Spain and abroad.
Barea's life was not an easy one, as he faced many challenges and personal struggles. He grew up in poverty and had to leave school at a young age to work in a cork factory. However, he never gave up on his dreams of becoming a writer and ultimately achieved great success in his chosen field.
In addition to his literary achievements, Barea was also a committed social and political activist. He was deeply committed to the cause of democracy and human rights, and he dedicated himself to fighting against fascism and authoritarianism. Barea's work as a journalist and propagandist during the Spanish Civil War played an important role in shaping public opinion and rallying support for the Republican cause.
Throughout his life, Barea remained a passionate advocate for free speech and intellectual freedom. He recognized the power of language and literature to inspire change and challenge the status quo. Barea's legacy as a writer, thinker, and activist continues to inspire generations of readers and writers around the world.
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Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (January 29, 1867 Valencia-January 28, 1928 Menton) also known as Vicente Blasco Ibanez, Vicente Blasco Ibagez or Blasco Ibanez was a Spanish novelist, screenwriter and film director. He had four children, Mario Blasco, Julio César Blasco, Sigfrido Blasco-Ibáñez and Libertad Blasco Ibáñez.
Blasco Ibáñez was a prominent figure in Spanish literary and political circles during the early 20th century. His literary works primarily focused on social and political issues of his time, including the injustices of Spanish colonialism in North Africa, the plight of the working class, and the struggles of women. His most famous work, "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse," was an international bestseller and was later adapted into a successful film. He also wrote a number of other popular novels during his lifetime, including "Blood and Sand" and "The Cabin."
In addition to his literary pursuits, Blasco Ibáñez was actively involved in Spanish politics, serving as a member of Parliament and as a vocal supporter of the Republican cause during the Spanish Civil War. In the years leading up to his death, he spent much of his time in exile in France, where he continued to write and direct films. Despite his controversial political beliefs, Blasco Ibáñez remains one of Spain's most respected and influential writers, and his legacy continues to inspire generations of Spanish artists and activists.
Blasco Ibáñez attended law school in Valencia, but he dropped out to pursue a career as a writer. He began his literary career as a journalist, writing for several periodicals in Madrid and Valencia. His early work was heavily influenced by French naturalism, which emphasized the scientific observation of social reality. He later became associated with the Generation of '98, a group of writers and intellectuals who sought to renew Spanish culture after the loss of the country's last colonies in 1898.
In addition to his work as a novelist, Blasco Ibáñez was a pioneer in the Spanish film industry. He wrote and directed several films in the 1910s and 1920s, including adaptations of his own novels. He also worked as a screenwriter on a number of other films. Blasco Ibáñez was one of the first Spanish writers to recognize the importance of cinema as a popular art form, and he saw it as a way to reach a wider audience with his ideas.
Blasco Ibáñez was a passionate advocate for social justice, and his writing often explored issues of poverty, inequality, and oppression. He also championed women's rights, and many of his novels feature strong female characters who rebel against the constraints of their society. Blasco Ibáñez's popularity extended beyond Spain, and he was widely regarded as one of the most important Spanish writers of his generation. His legacy continues to be celebrated in Spain, where several monuments have been erected in his honor, including a statue in his hometown of Valencia.
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Emilio Rodríguez (November 28, 1923 Ponteareas-February 21, 1984 Ponteareas) was a Spanish personality.
He was a well-known Galician poet, essayist, and translator. Throughout his career, Emilio Rodríguez played a significant role in the literary scene in Galicia, earning a reputation as a prominent figure among the Galician intelligentsia. He began writing poetry in the early 1950s and became a member of the editorial board of Grial, one of the most prestigious Galician-language cultural magazines of the time. Rodríguez also made a name for himself as an essayist, writing extensively on literature, culture, and politics.
As a translator, Emilio Rodríguez was instrumental in bringing the works of important international authors into the Galician language. Among others, he translated the works of Samuel Beckett, Eugène Ionesco, and Jean-Paul Sartre. In recognition of his contribution to Galician literature, Rodríguez was awarded the coveted Galician Literature Prize in 1980. Despite his success, Emilio Rodríguez remained a humble and unassuming person throughout his life.
In addition to his literary pursuits, Emilio Rodríguez was also actively involved in politics. He was a member of the Communist Party of Spain and participated in various left-wing movements. During the Francoist dictatorship, he was persecuted for his political beliefs and was imprisoned on several occasions. However, he continued to write and publish his works despite the censorship and repression he faced.
Emilio Rodríguez was not only a writer and political activist but also a dedicated teacher. He worked as a teacher of literature for many years and was highly respected by his students for his passion and knowledge. He was also involved in the Galician language movement and fought for the recognition of Galician as an official language in Spain.
After his death in 1984, Emilio Rodríguez's legacy as a writer, translator, political activist, and teacher continued to inspire generations of Galician intellectuals. Today, he is remembered as one of the most important figures in Galician literature and culture.
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