British music stars died at age 75

Here are 29 famous musicians from United Kingdom died at 75:

Maurice Murphy

Maurice Murphy (August 7, 1935 Hammersmith-October 28, 2010) also known as Murphy, Maurice was a British musician and trumpeter.

He is perhaps best known for his role as principal trumpet player of the London Symphony Orchestra, a position he held for over 30 years. Murphy was also a renowned soloist and performed with many other orchestras around the world, as well as with several prominent jazz ensembles. In addition to his performing career, he was also an accomplished teacher and taught at several music schools throughout his career. Murphy was recognized with numerous awards for his contributions to music, including an OBE in 1998 and a CBE in 2007.

Born in Hammersmith, London, Murphy began playing the trumpet at the age of 13. He attended the Royal College of Music, where he studied under acclaimed trumpet player Ernest Hall. After graduating, he joined the Sadler's Wells Orchestra and then moved on to play with the BBC Symphony Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, and ultimately the London Symphony Orchestra (LSO).

During his tenure with the LSO, Murphy played on many notable film soundtracks, including Star Wars, Indiana Jones, and James Bond films. He also worked with famous conductors such as Leonard Bernstein and Andre Previn.

In addition to his orchestral work, Murphy was an accomplished jazz musician and performed with groups such as the Stan Tracey Big Band and John Dankworth Orchestra. He also recorded several jazz albums as a solo artist.

Murphy's contributions to music were widely recognized, earning him honorary doctorates from the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, the University of Surrey, and the University of Southampton. He also received the ARAM (Associate of the Royal Academy of Music) award for his significant contributions to the music profession.

Maurice Murphy passed away on October 28, 2010, at the age of 75. His legacy and impact on the world of music continue to be celebrated and remembered by fans and fellow musicians alike.

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John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe

John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe (December 5, 1859 Southampton-November 20, 1935 Kensington) a.k.a. John Rushworth Jellicoe Jellicoe was a British personality.

He was a naval officer who served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Grand Fleet during World War I. Jellicoe played a crucial role in the Battle of Jutland, the largest naval battle of the war. He was also the Governor-General of New Zealand from 1920 to 1924. Jellicoe was made the 1st Earl Jellicoe in 1918 for his services to the country.

During his naval career, Jellicoe held several important positions such as the command of the Battleship Squadron of the Channel Fleet and the Mediterranean Fleet. He was known for his innovative tactics and had a reputation as a skilled sailor. As the Governor-General of New Zealand, Jellicoe worked to strengthen the country's ties with the United Kingdom and promote its interests on the world stage.

In addition to his military and political career, Jellicoe was also a prolific author. He wrote several books, including The Grand Fleet 1914–1916: Its Creation, Development, and Work, which provided a detailed account of his experiences during World War I. Jellicoe was highly respected by his peers and was widely regarded as one of the most influential British naval commanders of his time.

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Basil Rathbone

Basil Rathbone (June 13, 1892 Johannesburg-July 21, 1967 New York City) also known as Philip St. John Basil Rathbone, Ratters, Sir Basil Rathbone or Philip St. John Basil Rathbone, MC was a British actor, soldier and voice actor. His children are called John Rodion and Cynthia Rathbone.

His albums: .

He died caused by myocardial infarction.

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Frank Harris

Frank Harris (February 14, 1856 Galway-August 27, 1931 Nice) also known as James Thomas Harris was a British writer, editor and journalist.

Harris was born in Ireland to Welsh parents and grew up in Wales. He emigrated to the United States at the age of 19 and worked as a cowboy, gold prospector, and journalist. He became editor of the Evening News in London in 1894 and later the Fortnightly Review. Harris was known for his candid and provocative writing on politics, literature, and sexuality. He famously published a series of interviews with Oscar Wilde that helped to convict Wilde of gross indecency. Harris wrote several books in his lifetime including his autobiography "My Life and Loves" and the controversial novel "The Bomb". Despite his controversial reputation, Harris was respected by many of his peers in the literary world including H.G. Wells and George Bernard Shaw.

In addition to his work as a writer and journalist, Frank Harris was also involved in politics. He was a supporter of Irish Home Rule and he ran unsuccessfully for Parliament several times as a member of the Irish Nationalist Party. Later in life, Harris moved to France and became a French citizen. He continued to write until his death in 1931. Though he was a controversial figure in his time, he is now recognized as an important early voice in modern literature and an advocate for free speech.

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H. H. Asquith

H. H. Asquith (September 12, 1852 Morley-February 15, 1928 Sutton Courtenay) also known as Herbert Asquith, Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, H. H. Asquith, Margot Asquith or H. H Asquith was a British barrister and lawyer. His children are Raymond Asquith, Violet Bonham Carter, Herbert Asquith, Cyril Asquith, Baron Asquith of Bishopstone, Arthur Asquith, Elizabeth Bibesco, Anthony Asquith and Maurice Bonham Carter.

Asquith was a prominent figure in British politics, serving as the Prime Minister from 1908 until 1916. He came from a family of academics and pursued his education at the City of London School and Balliol College, Oxford. He then went on to become a successful lawyer, taking silk in 1890.

In 1886, Asquith was first elected to Parliament as a member of the Liberal Party, and he quickly gained a reputation as a skilled orator and debater. Over the years, he held several key positions in the government, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Asquith's time as Prime Minister was marked by several important events, including the passage of the People's Budget in 1909, which aimed to increase taxes on the wealthy to fund social welfare programs. He also led the country through the beginning of World War I, but faced criticism for his handling of the conflict and was eventually forced to resign in 1916.

After his political career, Asquith turned to literature, writing several books and essays. He was also known for his affair with Venetia Stanley, which was revealed through their extensive correspondence that was later published. Despite his scandals and controversies, Asquith is remembered as a key figure in the history of British politics.

Asquith was known for his liberal and progressive policies, which included efforts to extend the right to vote to more people, including women. He was also a strong supporter of free trade and championed the idea of a welfare state. As Prime Minister, he oversaw the formation of the Royal Flying Corps, which later became the Royal Air Force.

Asquith was married to Margot Tennant, who was known for her wit and charm, and was a prominent society hostess. Their marriage was not without its difficulties, however, and Asquith's affair with Venetia Stanley strained their relationship. Despite this, Margot continued to support her husband and his political career.

After leaving politics, Asquith's health began to decline, and he suffered a series of strokes. He died in 1928 at the age of 75, and was mourned by many as a great statesman and leader. Today, he is remembered as one of the most important figures in British political history, and his legacy continues to influence politicians and policymakers around the world.

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Dorothea Beale

Dorothea Beale (March 21, 1831 Bishopsgate-November 9, 1906) was a British personality.

She was an educator and the principal of the Cheltenham Ladies' College, a prestigious institution for women's education in England. Beale was known for her progressive views on women's education and for her efforts to promote equal opportunities for women in society. She was also a prominent member of the Women's Suffrage movement in the UK and advocated for women's right to vote. In addition to her work at the Cheltenham Ladies' College, Beale was involved in many educational and philanthropic organizations, including the Girls' Day School Trust and the Young Women's Christian Association. Throughout her life, she was committed to improving the lives and opportunities of women, and her legacy continues to inspire educators and feminists today.

Beale was born in London and was the youngest of six children. Her father was a linen merchant and her mother was a devout Christian who instilled in her children a strong sense of duty and service. Beale attended Queen's College, London, where she received an education that was specifically designed for girls. She showed a great aptitude for learning and was encouraged to pursue a career in teaching.

In 1858, Beale was appointed the principal of the Cheltenham Ladies' College. She held this position for over 40 years and during that time, she transformed the college into one of the most respected institutions for women's education in Europe. Under her leadership, the college became known for its rigorous academic standards and innovative teaching practices.

In addition to her work at the Cheltenham Ladies' College, Beale was involved in many other educational and philanthropic organizations. She served as the president of the National Union of Women Teachers, was a member of the Royal Commission on Secondary Education, and was involved with the founding of the Girls' Public Day School Company.

Beale was also an active member of the Women's Suffrage movement in the UK. She believed that women should have the right to vote and was involved in many campaigns and demonstrations to promote this cause. Her dedication to women's rights and education has made her a lasting figure in British history.

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Alastair Sim

Alastair Sim (October 9, 1900 Edinburgh-August 19, 1976 London) also known as Alastair George Bell Sim, Alistair Sim or Alastair George Bell Sim, CBE was a British actor, laborer, clerk, teacher and film director. He had one child, Merlith McKendrick.

Alastair Sim is best known for his roles in classic films such as "Scrooge" (1951), "The Belles of St. Trinian's" (1954), and "Hue and Cry" (1947). He was a versatile actor and appeared in a wide range of films, from comedies to dramas. Sim was also a successful stage actor and appeared in a number of productions in London's West End throughout his career. In addition to his acting work, Sim was an accomplished academic and taught at several universities in Scotland. He was awarded the CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) in 1953 for his services to drama. Sim was highly respected by his peers and continues to be remembered as one of the great British actors of the 20th century.

Sim's acting career began in the 1930s, with appearances in stage productions and British films. He gained critical acclaim in the 1940s for his roles in films such as "The Saint in London" (1939) and "Green for Danger" (1946). Sim was also known for his work in radio dramas, including his portrayal of Ebenezer Scrooge in a BBC radio adaptation of "A Christmas Carol."

Sim was known for his distinctive voice and expressive face, and his performances often balanced humor and pathos. He was also known for his eccentric personal style, which included wearing bow ties and carrying an umbrella wherever he went.

Despite his success, Sim was often described as a private and reclusive figure. He rarely gave interviews and was known to be highly critical of his own work. Nevertheless, his impact on British film and theatre is still celebrated today, and his legacy continues to inspire actors and audiences alike.

He died in lung cancer.

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Donald Pleasence

Donald Pleasence (October 5, 1919 Worksop-February 2, 1995 Saint Paul de Vence) also known as Donald Henry Pleasence, Donald Pleasance, Don Pleasence, Donald Henry Pleasence, OBE or Donald Plesance was a British actor, soldier and voice actor. He had five children, Angela Pleasence, Miranda Pleasence, Lucy Pleasance, Polly Jo Pleasence and Jean Pleasence.

Pleasence began his acting career on stage in the 1940s and made his film debut in 1954. He appeared in numerous British films and TV shows throughout his career, including the iconic horror film "Halloween" (1978) and its sequel "Halloween II" (1981), where he played the role of Dr. Sam Loomis. He also appeared in the James Bond film "You Only Live Twice" (1967) as Blofeld and in the classic World War II film "The Great Escape" (1963) as Flight Lieutenant Colin Blythe 'The Forger'. Pleasence was known for his distinctive voice and unique acting style, and he received critical acclaim and several awards for his performances in both film and theater. Beyond his acting career, Pleasence was also a published author and wrote several books on his experiences as a prisoner of war during World War II. He was married four times throughout his life, and his final marriage was to Linda J. Kentwood in 1988.

Pleasence was born in Worksop, Nottinghamshire, England, and was the son of Alice and Thomas Stanley Pleasence, a railway station master. He attended Ecclesfield Grammar School and served in the Royal Air Force during World War II, where he was a Lancaster bomber pilot. His experiences as a prisoner of war in a German camp had a significant impact on him and later influenced his writings. After the war, he attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and began his acting career in theater.

In addition to his film and TV work, Pleasence was also a prolific stage actor and appeared in numerous productions throughout his career. He received several awards and nominations for his performances, including a BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role for his role in "The Caretaker" (1963).

Pleasence also lent his voice to various animated films and TV shows, including "The Last Unicorn" (1982) and "The Wind in the Willows" (1983), as well as video games like "Phantasmagoria: A Puzzle of Flesh" (1996) and "Escape from Monkey Island" (2000).

Despite his success, Pleasence remained a humble and private person, often declining interviews and publicity opportunities. His legacy continues to be celebrated by fans of his work and his contributions to the entertainment industry are still recognized today.

He died in surgical complications.

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Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin

Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin (July 20, 1766 Fife-November 14, 1841) was a British diplomat. He had one child, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin.

Thomas Bruce, also known as Lord Elgin, is perhaps best known for his controversial removal of sculptures from the Parthenon temple in Athens, Greece. As the British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire in Constantinople, Elgin convinced Ottoman authorities to allow him to remove these sculptures, which became known as the "Elgin Marbles," and ship them to England. The move was widely criticized, and Greece continues to call for the return of these cultural treasures to this day. Elgin served as Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1799-1803 and later held various political positions in Britain. In addition to his political career, Elgin was also a noted art collector and patron.

Elgin's interest in art began during his time as a student at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, where he spent much of his time studying ancient Greek and Roman texts. He later traveled extensively throughout Europe, collecting art and antiquities from various sources. Elgin's actions in Greece were part of a larger trend of European imperialism and cultural appropriation during the 19th century, which saw many important cultural artifacts removed from their places of origin and brought to European museums and collections. Despite the controversy surrounding his actions, Elgin remained a prominent figure in British society until his death in 1841. Today, his legacy is somewhat mixed, with some regarding him as a cultural hero who helped preserve ancient Greek art, while others view him as a villain who stole important pieces of Greece's cultural heritage.

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Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet

Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet (June 3, 1736 Besançon-August 12, 1811 Palermo) was a British sailor. His children are Charles Januarius Acton and Ferdinand Dalberg-Acton.

Sir John Acton had a distinguished career as a naval officer, serving in the Royal Navy for over 30 years. He was also a close friend and advisor to the King of Naples, Ferdinand IV, and played a key role in the politics of the Kingdom of Naples. In 1779, Acton was appointed as Prime Minister and Minister of War of Naples, a position he held for over 20 years. He worked to modernize the country's army and navy and implemented reforms to improve the economy, education, and justice system. Acton's strong support of the Catholic Church was also significant in shaping the policies of Naples during his time in office. He was known for his wit, intelligence, and political savvy, and his legacy remains an important part of the history of Naples and the wider European political scene.

While serving as the Prime Minister of Naples, Sir John Acton became an influential figure in European politics. He maintained good relationships with several major European powers, including Austria and England, and played a key role in organizing an anti-French coalition during the French Revolutionary Wars. Acton's diplomatic efforts helped to prevent Napoleon from gaining control of the Mediterranean, and he received several honors and accolades in recognition of his service.

In addition to his political and naval accomplishments, Sir John Acton was also a devoted patron of the arts and sciences. He commissioned several important scientific studies and funded the construction of several public buildings and cultural institutions in Naples. Acton's support for the arts helped to establish Naples as an important center of cultural production and intellectual activity.

Today, Sir John Acton is remembered as one of the most influential and dynamic figures of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His legacy continues to impact European politics and culture, and he remains an important historical figure in the study of naval history, international relations, and political theory.

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Donald Neilson

Donald Neilson (August 1, 1936 Bradford-December 18, 2011 Norwich) a.k.a. Black Panther or Donald Nappey was a British personality.

Donald Neilson was a notorious English burglar and killer who gained infamy during his crime spree in the 1970s. He was known for his use of violence and psychological manipulation during his robberies, and was responsible for several murders, including the infamous kidnap and murder of 17-year-old heiress Lesley Whittle in 1975.

Neilson was eventually caught and convicted in 1976 and received life imprisonment, which he served until his death in 2011. During his time in prison, he became a prolific writer and painter, producing numerous works of fiction and non-fiction, as well as hundreds of paintings and illustrations. His art and writing have been the subject of several exhibitions and publications.

Aside from his notorious criminal past, not much is known about Neilson's personal life. He was born in Bradford and grew up in poverty. He left school at the young age of 15 and started working as a laborer. His criminal career began in the early 1960s, when he started committing small-scale burglaries to make ends meet. He soon became more brazen and violent, and his crimes escalated in severity.

Neilson's crimes gained widespread attention and fear throughout the United Kingdom. His use of firearms, homemade bombs, and violent brutality made him one of the most feared criminals of his time. His trial and conviction were highly publicized due to the severity of his crimes and the shock they caused throughout the country.

After his conviction, Neilson spent the remainder of his life in prison. He was known for his erratic behavior and refusal to show any remorse for his crimes. However, he also became a prolific artist and writer during his time behind bars, exploring subjects ranging from crime and punishment to life in prison. Some of his most notable works include the novels "A Bit of a Do" and "The Full Facts About the Theft of the Crown Jewels." Despite his morbid past, Neilson's work has received critical acclaim and has been praised for its insight into the criminal mind.

He died in motor neuron disease.

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Thomas Gaisford

Thomas Gaisford (December 22, 1779 Iford Manor-June 2, 1855) was a British personality.

Thomas Gaisford was a notable classical scholar and Regius Professor of Greek at the University of Oxford. He was educated at Oxford and became a tutor at Christ Church College in 1807. Gaisford made many contributions to the field of Greek scholarship, including a critical edition of the works of Hesychius of Alexandria and a commentary on Heraclitus. He also served as a trustee of the British Museum and as a member of the Oxford University Press Syndicate. Due to his great contributions to academia, he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1844.

During his tenure as Regius Professor of Greek, Thomas Gaisford was known for his rigorous teaching style and his insistence on accuracy in scholarship. His students affectionately called him the "Black Gaisford" due to his penchant for wearing dark clothing. In addition to his scholarly pursuits, Gaisford was active in ecclesiastical affairs and served as the Dean of Christ Church from 1831 until his death. Gaisford's legacy in the field of classical scholarship is marked by his meticulous attention to detail and his commitment to preserving the integrity of ancient Greek texts. Today, his works are still widely read and respected by scholars in the field.

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Benjamin Hall Kennedy

Benjamin Hall Kennedy (November 6, 1804 Birmingham-April 6, 1880 Torquay) was a British personality.

He is best known for his contribution to the field of education. Kennedy was a classical scholar and a renowned teacher of Greek language and literature. He was the headmaster of the prestigious Shrewsbury School in Shropshire, England and held the position for over 30 years. During his tenure, he modernized the school's curriculum and introduced new teaching methods that enhanced the quality of education at the school.

Kennedy was also an author and published several books on classical literature, including a highly regarded translation of the works of Greek poet Theocritus. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and received numerous accolades and honors for his contribution to the field of education.

In addition to his scholarly pursuits, Kennedy was also actively involved in philanthropy and served as a member of the Torquay Improvement Committee. In recognition of his service to the community, a monument was erected in his honor in Torquay's Cary Green.

Kennedy's dedication to the field of education is evident not only from his work as a headmaster, but also from his role in establishing and promoting classical scholarship in England. He was instrumental in the development of the Cambridge Greek Testament, a widely used Greek-language edition of the New Testament, and helped to found the influential Classical Association. Kennedy also served as President of the Philological Society, an organization dedicated to the study of language and literature.

Despite his many accomplishments, Kennedy was known for his humility and devotion to his pupils. He often said that his greatest joy was "to see my pupils do well." Many of his former students went on to become successful scholars and leaders in their fields, a testament to Kennedy's influence as a teacher and mentor.

In addition to his teaching and scholarly work, Kennedy was a devoted family man. He was married to Mary Anne Longley, the daughter of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and had eleven children. He was known for his love of nature and spent much of his leisure time exploring the countryside around his home in Shropshire.

Today, Kennedy's legacy lives on through the many students he inspired and the institutions he helped to shape. His contributions to the field of education and classical scholarship continue to be celebrated and studied by scholars and educators around the world.

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Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby

Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby (April 23, 1861 Nottinghamshire-May 14, 1936 London) was a British personality.

Allenby was a senior British Army officer who served as the Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force during World War I. He is remembered for his successful campaign in the Middle Eastern theater that led to the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. Following the war, he served as the High Commissioner of Egypt and Sudan, where he implemented policies aimed at modernizing the country's economy and military. In 1925, he was elevated to the nobility as the first Viscount Allenby. Allenby was respected for his brilliant military mind and his ability to lead troops with courage and distinction.

During his military career, Allenby served in a number of conflicts, including the Second Boer War and World War I. He gained fame after leading British forces to victory over Ottoman troops at the Battle of Beersheba in 1917, which is considered one of the most important battles in the Middle Eastern theater.

Allenby was also known for his commitment to fairness and compassion in his leadership. He worked to minimize civilian casualties and improve the conditions for prisoners of war, earning him the nickname "the humane conqueror." He was highly respected by his troops and earned a reputation as a great military leader.

After retiring from the military, Allenby served as the High Commissioner of Egypt and Sudan from 1919 to 1925. During this time, he worked to modernize the economy, improve infrastructure, and enhance the military of the region. Allenby was also involved in negotiations that led to the signing of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, which helped to establish Egypt as an independent state.

In addition to his military and political accomplishments, Allenby was also a dedicated philanthropist, supporting causes such as education and the arts. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Knight of the Garter.

Today, Allenby's legacy lives on as a symbol of British military leadership and diplomatic success in the Middle East.

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Henry Newbolt

Henry Newbolt (June 6, 1862 Bilston-April 19, 1938 Kensington) otherwise known as Henry John Newbolt or Sir Henry Newbolt was a British poet.

He was born in Bilston, Staffordshire, England and attended Clifton College and Oxford University, where he studied classics. In 1895, he published his first volume of poems, called "Admirals All and Other Verses," which established his reputation as a patriotic poet. He went on to write many other volumes of poetry, including "Drake and Other Poems" (1906) and "Tales of the Great War" (1916).

In addition to his writing, Newbolt was also heavily involved in education and politics. He served as a government inspector of schools, as well as a member of parliament for the Conservative Party. He was also deeply involved in the founding of the Imperial War Museum in London.

Newbolt's poetry often celebrated the ideals of honor, duty, and patriotism, and he became a popular and influential poet in his time. His best-known poem is probably "Vitaï Lampada," which describes a cricket match at a British public school and celebrates the virtues of sacrifice and teamwork. He was knighted in 1915 for his services to literature.

During World War I, Newbolt worked as an advisor to the British War Propaganda Bureau, which produced propaganda to encourage enlistment and support for the war effort. He wrote many poems and speeches that were used for this purpose, including the well-known phrase "Play up! play up! and play the game!" which was used as a rallying cry for soldiers during the war.

Newbolt was also a prominent advocate for the preservation of England's historic buildings and countryside. He was a member of the National Trust and helped to save many important buildings and landscapes from destruction or development.

Despite his reputation as a patriotic poet and politician, Newbolt also had a more introspective side to his poetry. In his later poems, he often wrote about the passing of time and the fragility of human life.

Today, Newbolt is remembered primarily for his patriotic poetry and his role in promoting British nationalism during the early 20th century. However, his work also contains many insights into the human condition that continue to resonate with readers today.

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William Burnside

William Burnside (July 2, 1852 London-August 21, 1927 Cotleigh) was a British mathematician.

He is best known for his work on finite groups, specifically the Burnside's theorem. Burnside made significant contributions to the field of group theory and was a Fellow of the Royal Society. He also served as the president of the London Mathematical Society from 1902 to 1904. In addition to his mathematical achievements, Burnside was also a prolific writer, having authored several textbooks on the subject. He was appointed the first professor of mathematics at the University of Bristol in 1909 and held the position until his retirement in 1919. Burnside's legacy continues to be felt in the field of mathematics and his contributions have been recognized by numerous honors and awards.

Burnside was born into a family of lawyers and was initially expected to follow in his father's footsteps. However, he showed a strong interest in mathematics from a young age and pursued the subject throughout his education. After completing his undergraduate degree at Trinity College, Cambridge, Burnside went on to earn his PhD from the University of Göttingen in Germany. He returned to Cambridge to teach mathematics and became a fellow of the college in 1878.

Burnside's research focused primarily on group theory, a branch of abstract algebra that studies the properties of mathematical groups. He made several important discoveries in the field, including Burnside's lemma and the Burnside basis theorem. However, his most significant contribution was Burnside's theorem, which states that a finite group in which the order of every element is a factorial is solvable. This theorem has been widely used in the study of finite groups and has applications in areas such as chemistry and physics.

In addition to his academic work, Burnside was also involved in public service. He was a member of the Royal Commission on University Education in Ireland and served on the Board of Education in England. He was awarded the Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1917 in recognition of his contributions to education.

Burnside's influence on mathematics has been immense, and his work continues to be studied and applied by mathematicians today. His contributions to the field have earned him a place among the most important mathematicians of the 20th century.

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William Farr

William Farr (November 30, 1807 Kenley-April 14, 1883) a.k.a. Dr. William Farr was a British statistician and physician.

He is considered one of the founders of modern epidemiology, the study of patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. In the mid 19th century, Farr played a significant role in the development of the nation's vital statistics system by creating a uniform method of registering deaths, causes of deaths, and other demographic data. He also identified patterns in mortality and morbidity, highlighting seasonal and geographical variations, and pioneered the use of graphical methods, such as the life table, for analyzing data. Farr's work had a profound impact on public health policy and practice in Britain and around the world. After his death, Farr was largely forgotten for decades, but his contributions were rediscovered in the 20th century, and today, he is widely recognized as a major figure in the history of public health and epidemiology.

In addition to his work on vital statistics, William Farr made important contributions to the field of occupational health, investigating whether certain jobs led to an increased risk of disease or death. He also studied the impact of overcrowding on the incidence of infectious diseases, and advocated for measures to improve sanitation and living conditions in crowded urban areas. Farr was a prolific writer, publishing numerous articles and books on public health and statistics, including a landmark report on the causes of death in England in the mid 19th century. His legacy continues to inspire public health researchers and practitioners today.

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Isidor Gunsberg

Isidor Gunsberg (November 1, 1854 Pest, Hungary-May 2, 1930 London) was a British personality.

He was a Hungarian-born chess player and writer, who later naturalized as a British citizen. Gunsberg was considered one of the strongest chess players in the world during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He won several high-profile tournaments, including the Paris Championship in 1878, the Manchester Tournament of 1890, and the Berlin Tournament of 1891. In 1895, he played a famous match against Emanuel Lasker for the World Chess Championship, which he lost. Gunsberg continued to play chess competitively and write about the game until his death in 1930. He is known for his contributions to chess theory, particularly in the opening and endgame phases of the game.

Gunsberg's interest in chess began when he was a teenager, and he quickly established himself as a prodigy. At the age of 16, he defeated the Hungarian chess master Johann Hermann Zukertort in a game played blindfolded. Gunsberg's career as a chess player took him across Europe, where he participated in some of the most prestigious tournaments of his time. He settled in London in the late 1880s, and it was in this city that he made some of his most important contributions to the game of chess.

In addition to his successes as a player, Gunsberg was also a skilled writer and commentator on the game of chess. He wrote several books on chess and contributed to leading chess publications of his time, including the British Chess Magazine, which he edited for several years. Gunsberg was known for his analytical approach to the game, and his insights into chess strategy and theory influenced generations of chess players who followed in his footsteps.

Gunsberg's legacy as a chess player and writer continues to be felt today. He is recognized as one of the most important figures in the history of the game, and his innovations and contributions have been studied and emulated by chess players around the world. His name remains synonymous with excellence in chess, and his impact on the game is still felt more than a century after his death.

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St John Philby

St John Philby (April 3, 1885 Sri Lanka-September 30, 1960) also known as H. St. J. B. Philby, Harry St. John Bridger Philby, Jack Philby, Sheikh Abdullah, Saint John Philby or St. John Philby was a British personality. He had one child, Kim Philby.

St John Philby was an explorer, author, and Arabist who played a significant role in shaping British policy in the Middle East during the 20th century. He worked as an intelligence officer for the British government and was famously known for his friendship with the first king of Saudi Arabia, King Abdulaziz. In fact, Philby was granted Saudi citizenship and given the name Sheikh Abdullah. He was also a strong supporter of Arab nationalism and worked towards the establishment of an independent Arab state. Philby was a prolific writer and authored numerous books on the Middle East, including "Arabia of the Wahhabis", "The Heart of Arabia", and "The Background of Islam". His son, Kim Philby, became a famous spy for the Soviet Union and was part of the Cambridge Five espionage ring.

St John Philby was born in Sri Lanka and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. After graduating, he worked briefly as a lecturer in English literature before embarking on a career in exploration and politics. He made multiple trips to the Middle East, and his knowledge of the region and its people made him a valuable asset to the British government. His intelligence work included mapping regions of Arabia, liaising with Arabian tribes, and even spying on behalf of the British government during World War I.

St John Philby's close friendship with King Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia helped to strengthen the political relationship between Britain and Saudi Arabia. He acted as an advisor to the king on matters of foreign policy and helped to negotiate important agreements, including the Treaty of Jeddah in 1927. His commitment to Arab nationalism led him to support the anti-Zionist movement, and he was a vocal critic of the British Mandate in Palestine.

Despite his achievements, St John Philby's legacy is somewhat controversial. His support for Arab nationalism put him at odds with British colonial policies, and his criticism of British involvement in the Middle East was seen as disloyal by some. He was also accused of being an opportunist who used his political connections to further his own interests. Nevertheless, St John Philby's contributions to Arab-British relations and his insights into the Middle East remain valuable to this day.

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Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle

Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (July 21, 1693 London-November 17, 1768 Lincoln's Inn Fields) was a British personality.

He served as Prime Minister twice during the mid-18th century and was a significant figure in British politics. In addition to his political career, he was also known for his passion for horse racing and his extensive collection of art and books. As a member of the Whig party, he played a key role in shaping the foreign policy of Britain during the Seven Years' War. Despite his success in politics, he was widely criticized for his lack of leadership and indecisiveness during the war.

Pelham-Holles was born into a prominent political family, and his uncle was the influential Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Pelham-Holles himself entered politics at a young age, serving in various government positions throughout his career. During his first term as Prime Minister from 1754 to 1756, he attempted to maintain peace with France while also pursuing British interests abroad. However, his efforts were largely unsuccessful, and he was forced to resign in 1756.

After a brief period out of office, Pelham-Holles returned as Prime Minister in 1757, and his second term was marked by the British victory in the Battle of Minden during the Seven Years' War. However, his leadership during the war was often criticized, and he was accused of neglecting the needs of British soldiers and failing to provide adequate resources for the war effort.

Despite these criticisms, Pelham-Holles remained a prominent figure in British politics throughout his career, and his contributions to the development of British foreign policy were significant. He was also known for his extensive collection of art and books, and his wealth allowed him to support various cultural institutions and charities. In recognition of his contributions to British politics and society, he was created Duke of Newcastle in 1756.

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Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton

Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton (September 28, 1735-March 14, 1811 Euston Hall) was a British personality. He had three children, George FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton, Lord Charles FitzRoy and Charles Augustus FitzRoy.

Augustus FitzRoy was also a prominent politician of his time, serving as the Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1768 to 1770. He was a member of the Whig Party and played an instrumental role in passing the Townshend Acts, which imposed taxes on colonial goods in America, leading to increased tensions that would eventually lead to the American Revolution. In addition to his political pursuits, FitzRoy was also a patron of the arts and supported the development of new technology. He was a founding member of the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce and helped to fund the development of steam-powered engines. FitzRoy also had a keen interest in agriculture and was a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. He died in 1811 at Euston Hall in Suffolk, at the age of 75.

During his time as Prime Minister, Augustus FitzRoy advocated for the rights of religious dissenters and supported the repeal of the Test Act, which denied non-Anglicans the ability to hold public office. He was also a proponent of increased naval power and helped to modernize the British Navy. In 1782, he was appointed Lord Privy Seal and later served as Lord President of the Council. FitzRoy was known for his amicable personality and his ability to work across party lines. He was also a popular figure in high society, known for his love of gambling, horse racing, and hunting. In addition to his political legacy, FitzRoy was also remembered for his extensive collection of manuscripts and books, which he bequeathed to the British Museum upon his death.

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Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville

Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville (May 11, 1815 Mayfair, London-March 31, 1891 London) was a British personality.

He was a statesman who served as the Foreign Secretary twice, from 1851 to 1852 and from 1859 to 1866, and also served as the Leader of the House of Lords. He was known for his diplomatic skills, and played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Crimean War. Granville was also a member of several important political committees, including the Privy Council and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Outside of politics, he was a keen art collector and patron, and was involved in the founding of the National Portrait Gallery in London.

Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville was born into a well-known political family. His father, Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville, was also a prominent politician who served as the Ambassador to Paris and the President of the Board of Trade. Earl Granville received a private education and then went on to study at Christ Church, Oxford. After completing his studies, he entered politics and became a member of the Liberal Party. He served in various government positions, including as President of the Council and as Lord President of the Council, before being appointed Foreign Secretary.

During his tenure as Foreign Secretary, Earl Granville worked towards strengthening British relationships with European countries. He played a key role in the Congress of Paris, which ended the Crimean War, and also helped negotiate various treaties and agreements with other countries. His diplomatic skills were highly praised by his contemporaries, and he was regarded as a thoughtful and strategic statesman.

Despite his busy political career, Earl Granville also had a keen interest in the arts. He was a collector of paintings and sculptures, and was involved in the establishment of the National Portrait Gallery in London. He was also a patron of the arts and supported many artists and musicians throughout his life.

Earl Granville died in 1891 at the age of 75. He was remembered as a skilled politician and diplomat, and as a patron of the arts who contributed greatly to the cultural life of Great Britain.

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Myra Hess

Myra Hess (February 25, 1890 London-November 25, 1965 London) also known as Hess, Myra was a British pianist.

Her albums: Great Pianists of the 20th Century, Volume 45: Myra Hess, Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 3, Overture Coriolanus / Wagner: Siegfried's Rhine Journey from Götterdämmerung and Sextet no. 1 / Piano Trio no. 1. Genres she performed: Classical music.

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William E. Fairbairn

William E. Fairbairn (February 28, 1885 Rickmansworth-June 20, 1960) also known as William Fairbairn was a British personality.

He was a military officer, police officer, and renowned expert in close combat techniques. Fairbairn served in the British Royal Marine before becoming a police officer in the Shanghai Municipal Police where he developed skills in hand-to-hand combat in dangerous situations.

He created the close combat system known as "Defendu" and trained soldiers during World War II in hand-to-hand combat. Fairbairn authored several books on self-defense, including "Get Tough," which became popular among soldiers during the war.

After the war, he worked as a consultant for law enforcement agencies and taught self-defense to law enforcement personnel. William Fairbairn's contributions to close combat techniques have had an enduring impact and have been implemented into modern military and law enforcement training.

In addition to his work in martial arts and combat techniques, Fairbairn was also an accomplished firearms expert. He developed the Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife, a versatile combat knife that was used extensively by British and American commandos during World War II. He also created the Shanghai Municipal Police Pistol Shooting System, a shooting technique that emphasized speed, accuracy, and the ability to shoot while moving.

Fairbairn's experience as a police officer in Shanghai also gave him unique insights into the criminal underworld, which he shared in his book "Death Dealer: The Memoirs of the SS Kommandant at Auschwitz." The book, co-authored with a former SS officer, details the workings of the Shanghai underworld and the tactics used by criminals to evade law enforcement.

In addition to his professional accomplishments, Fairbairn was also an accomplished artist and collector of Asian art. He spent much of his retirement in Canada, where he continued to teach self-defense and close combat techniques until his death in 1960.

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W. E. Johns

W. E. Johns (February 5, 1893 Bengeo-June 21, 1968 London Borough of Richmond upon Thames) also known as Captain W. E. Johns or William Earl Johns was a British novelist and writer.

He was best known for his series of adventure stories featuring the character of James Bigglesworth, an air detective known as "Biggles". Johns was a pilot himself and drew on his own experiences during World War I to create the Biggles character. Johns wrote more than 160 books, including westerns, war stories, and children's books. In addition to his career as a writer, Johns also worked as an illustrator and was commissioned to produce artwork for books, magazines, and advertisements. He was awarded the Order of the British Empire in 1964 for his services to literature.

Johns was born in Bengeo, Hertfordshire, England, and was the son of a tailor. After leaving school at age 16, he worked in a variety of jobs, including as a railway clerk, a surveyor's chainman, and a sanitary inspector. He joined the Royal Flying Corps in 1915 and served as a pilot during World War I. After the war, he continued to fly and worked as a freelance aviation writer. He wrote his first Biggles story, "The White Fokker," in 1932, and the character quickly became popular with readers of all ages. Johns continued to write Biggles stories until his death in 1968. He also wrote several other series, including the "Worrals" books, which featured a female pilot, and the "Gimlet" series, featuring a World War II fighter pilot. Johns was known for his attention to detail and his vivid descriptions of the aviation world, and his books continue to be popular with readers around the world.

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Leon Brittan

Leon Brittan (September 25, 1939 North London-January 21, 2015) a.k.a. Leon. Brittan, Lord Brittan, Sir Leon Brittan, Leon Brittan QC MP, Leon Brittan MP, Rt Hon Leon Brittan QC MP, Rt Hon Leon Brittan MP, Rt Hon Sir Leon Brittan QC or Baron Brittan of Spennithorne QC, PC, DL was a British barrister, politician and official.

Brittan was a member of the Conservative Party and served as a Member of Parliament (MP) for over 14 years. He held various positions in the government, including Chief Secretary to the Treasury, Home Secretary, and Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. After leaving politics, he became a European Commissioner for Competition and also served as Vice-President of the European Commission.

Brittan was also known for his work in criminal law and was a prominent barrister before entering politics. He was a member of the Queen's Counsel and served as Recorder of the Crown Court. In addition, he was appointed a life peer in the House of Lords in 2000.

In his later years, Brittan became embroiled in controversy surrounding allegations of sexual abuse during his time as Home Secretary. He vehemently denied the allegations and maintained his innocence until his death.

Despite the controversy surrounding his later years, Leon Brittan was widely respected for his contributions to British politics and law. He was instrumental in ushering in economic reforms as Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, which helped shape the country's modern economy. He also led efforts to combat terrorism as Home Secretary, introducing measures to enhance national security.

In addition to his political and legal work, Brittan was known for his philanthropy. He was a generous supporter of charities and arts organizations, serving as a trustee of the Royal Opera House and a governor of the Ditchley Foundation.

Brittan's legacy continues to be debated, with some praising his achievements and others criticizing his tenure as Home Secretary. However, there is no doubt that he made a significant impact on British public life and will be remembered as a key figure in the country's recent history.

He died in cancer.

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John Edward Gray

John Edward Gray (February 12, 1800 Walsall-March 7, 1875 London) was a British personality.

John Edward Gray was a British zoologist and author who made significant contributions to the study of mammals, birds, and reptiles. He was the author of many scientific papers and books, including "The Genera of Birds," which was a major work on the classification of birds. Gray worked at the British Museum from 1824 until his death in 1875 and was responsible for building up its impressive zoological collections. He also served as the President of the Zoological Society of London from 1841 to 1844. Gray was a leading authority on the classification and taxonomy of animals of his time and his work greatly advanced the field of zoology.

Throughout his career, Gray described and named numerous new species and genera of animals, including the common wombat, the black-handed spider monkey, and the sand lizard. He also corresponded with many of the leading naturalists of his time, including Charles Darwin, and was a member of several scientific societies.

Gray was born in Walsall, Staffordshire, England, and showed an early interest in natural history. He began working at the British Museum as an assistant in the Zoology Department in 1824, and eventually became Keeper of the Department, a position he held until his death. During his time at the Museum, he was instrumental in adding hundreds of thousands of specimens to the collection, and was known for his organizational abilities as well as his scientific expertise.

In addition to his scientific work, Gray was known for his generosity and kindness. He was admired by his colleagues for his willingness to share his knowledge and collection with other zoologists, and frequently gave lectures and guided tours of the Museum to visitors. He was also involved in many charitable organizations, and was a founding member of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Today, Gray is remembered as one of the most important zoologists of the 19th century, and his work continues to influence the study of animals to this day.

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John Kidd

John Kidd (September 10, 1775 Westminster-September 7, 1851 Oxford) was a British chemist, geologist and physician.

He is best known for being a pioneer in the field of geology and for his work on the classification of rocks. Kidd was also a well-respected physician, and he served as a professor of chemistry at both the University of Oxford and the Royal Institution in London. In addition to his scientific work, Kidd was an accomplished writer and published several books on a wide range of topics, including geology, chemistry, medicine, and philosophy. Despite his many achievements, Kidd was known for his modesty and humility, and he never sought public recognition or fame for his work. Today, he is remembered as one of the most important figures in the development of modern geology and chemistry.

Kidd began his career as a physician and was one of the early advocates of vaccination against smallpox. He was also a member of the Royal College of Physicians in London and was highly regarded for his medical expertise. However, it was his keen interest in geology and chemistry that brought him recognition as a scientist. He was an early proponent of the idea that rocks were formed by natural processes such as erosion and sedimentation, rather than the result of catastrophic events such as floods or earthquakes as some of his contemporaries believed.

Kidd's contributions to the study of geology were significant, and he made several important discoveries during his lifetime. He was the first to describe the geological structure of the Isle of Wight in detail, and he demonstrated the relationship between rocks and fossils, which helped to establish the science of paleontology. He also proposed a classification system for rocks based on their chemical composition, which formed the basis of modern petrology.

In addition to his scientific work, Kidd was a prolific writer and commentator on a wide range of topics. His books included "Outlines of Mineralogy" and "Manual of Organic Materia Medica," as well as philosophical treatises such as "Essays on the Physiology of the Mind" and "The Limits of Physical Science." He was also an influential figure in the intellectual circles of his time and was a friend and colleague of many prominent scientists and thinkers.

Despite his many achievements, Kidd was known for his humility and lack of ego. He continued to practice medicine throughout his life and was devoted to his patients, often providing medical care free of charge to those who could not afford it. Today, his contributions to the fields of geology, chemistry, and medicine are recognized as significant, and he is remembered as a pioneering and influential figure in the history of science.

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Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire

Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire (May 30, 1718 Fairford-October 7, 1793) was a British personality.

He was a peer and politician who served as a Member of Parliament for Warwick from 1741 to 1747 and then for Higham Ferrers from 1747 to 1756. He was later appointed as the Governor of the Leeward Islands from 1761 to 1763 and subsequently served as the Lord Lieutenant of County Down from 1768 until his death in 1793. In 1789, Hill was granted the title of Marquess of Downshire for his services to the British Crown. He was known for his philanthropic efforts, including the establishment of a hospital in Downpatrick, County Down, which serves the community to this day. Hill was also a patron of the arts and funded several cultural initiatives during his lifetime. He was married to Lady Margaretta Fitzgerald and had four children.

Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire, came from a prominent family, his father being the 1st Viscount Hillsborough. He spent much of his life in public service, beginning with his election to the House of Commons in 1741. Known for his loyalty to the Crown, Hill was appointed to various positions of authority throughout his career. In addition to his roles as a Member of Parliament, Governor, and Lord Lieutenant, he also served as a Privy Councillor and was given the title of Baron Sandys in 1758.

Hill's philanthropic endeavors extended beyond the establishment of a hospital in Downpatrick. He was also responsible for the construction of several schools and other charitable institutions in the areas he governed. Additionally, Hill was a recognized patron of the arts, sponsoring the construction of the landmark Downshire Monument in Tollymore Forest Park, County Down.

Hill's personal life was not without controversy. He was rumored to have had affairs with several women, including the wife of a fellow politician. His eldest son, Arthur Hill, 2nd Marquess of Downshire, was known for his lavish lifestyle and financial irresponsibility, which ultimately led to the sale of the family's estate.

Despite these scandals, Wills Hill is remembered as a dedicated public servant and philanthropist. Today, his legacy lives on through the various institutions he established throughout Ireland, as well as the memorials and monuments built in his honor.

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