Here are 29 famous musicians from Bangladesh died before 40:
Mazharul Haque (July 3, 1980 Narayanganj-April 3, 2013) was a Bangladeshi personality.
Mazharul Haque was a well-known Bangladeshi film director and producer. He had a successful career in the country's film industry and directed several popular films. Haque started his career as an assistant director and gradually climbed up the ladder to become a prominent figure in the industry. He was best known for his work in the films "Poramon", "Nabab", and "Ek Takar Bou" which were all successful at the box office. In addition to his contributions to the film industry, Haque was also a social activist and worked for the betterment of his community. He was involved in various philanthropic activities and was widely respected for his work. His sudden death at the young age of 32 was a great loss to the industry and his fans.
He died caused by myocardial infarction.
Read more about Mazharul Haque on Wikipedia »
Abdul Kadir (April 5, 2015-April 5, 1984) was a Bangladeshi writer.
He was born in Barishal, a city located in the southern part of Bangladesh. Abdul Kadir was known for his significant contributions to Bengali literature, particularly for his novels and short stories. He received his Bachelor's degree from the University of Dhaka and started his career as a journalist.
Abdul Kadir's literary works often revolved around the lives of marginalized individuals and their struggles in society. Some of his notable works include his novel "Boro Didi" (Big Sister) and short story "Bishkatak" (Scorpion), which earned him critical acclaim and popularity among readers.
Apart from being a writer, Abdul Kadir was actively involved in the Language Movement of Bangladesh in 1952, which led to the recognition of Bengali as an official language of the then-Pakistan. He was also a member of the Communist Party of Bangladesh.
Abdul Kadir passed away on April 5, 1984, on his 69th birthday, leaving behind a legacy in Bengali literature that continues to inspire and influence many aspiring writers.
Read more about Abdul Kadir on Wikipedia »
Benojir Ahmed (April 5, 2015-April 5, 1983) was a Bangladeshi writer.
He was born in the Chittagong district of Bangladesh and went on to become one of the most celebrated authors of his time. Benojir Ahmed's work often explored themes of identity, social justice, and the cultural complexities of his country. In addition to being a prolific writer, he was also a respected academic and served as a professor of Bengali literature at the University of Dhaka for many years. His most famous works include "Kothao Keu Nei" and "Nondito Noroke," both of which have been adapted into films and TV series. Benojir Ahmed received numerous honors for his contributions to Bangladeshi literature, including the Bangla Academy Award and the Ekushey Padak. He passed away in 1983, leaving behind a legacy as one of the greatest writers in Bangladeshi history.
Read more about Benojir Ahmed on Wikipedia »
Satyen Sen (April 5, 2015 Munshiganj District-April 5, 1981) was a Bangladeshi writer.
He was best known for his novel "Bhule Naoya Phuler Moto" which portrays the life of rural Bangladesh during the pre-independence era. Satyen Sen was the son of renowned writer and journalist Jogeshchandra Sen. He completed his education in Calcutta and started his career as a journalist. The majority of his literary works were published in different Bengali newspapers and magazines. Satyen Sen was a recipient of the Ekushey Padak, the second highest civilian award in Bangladesh, for his outstanding contribution to Bengali literature. He is considered one of the prominent figures of Bengali literature of the 20th century.
Read more about Satyen Sen on Wikipedia »
Achintya Kumar Sengupta (April 5, 2015 Noakhali District-April 5, 1976) otherwise known as Achintya Kumar Sen Gupta was a Bangladeshi writer.
He is best known for his contributions to Bengali literature during the early 20th century. Sengupta was a versatile writer, who authored novels, poetry, plays, and essays, and his work often explored themes such as social consciousness, patriotism, and humanism. He was a close associate of Rabindranath Tagore and was heavily influenced by the latter's literary style. Sengupta was awarded the prestigious Padma Bhushan in 1970 and posthumously, the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1978 for his contribution to Bengali literature. His most significant works include "Palli Samaj," "Chhobi," "Bichitra," "Uttarbanga," and "Amrita Kumbher Sandhane."
Read more about Achintya Kumar Sengupta on Wikipedia »
Abul Manzoor (April 5, 2015 Comilla-June 2, 1981 Chittagong) was a Bangladeshi personality.
He was a renowned poet, writer, and journalist. Abul Manzoor is widely recognized as one of the greatest poets in Bengali literature. He started his career as a journalist and worked for several prominent newspapers and magazines in Bangladesh. Manzoor was a prominent member of the Language Movement in 1952, which ultimately led to the recognition of Bengali as an official language of East Pakistan. He was also an active member of the Chhatra League during the 1960s, a student wing of the Awami League political party. Manzoor's literary works are known for their social and cultural themes, as well as their appeals to the common people. His poems and writings reflected the struggle and pain of the oppressed people of East Pakistan. He continued to write and inspire generations of Bengalis until his sudden death in 1981. Manzoor's legacy continues to live on today, and he is considered an icon of Bangladeshi literature and journalism.
Read more about Abul Manzoor on Wikipedia »
Syed Nazrul Islam (April 5, 2015 Kishoreganj District-November 3, 1975 Dhaka) was a Bangladeshi politician. His child is Sayed Ashraful Islam.
Syed Nazrul Islam was a prominent figure in the Bangladesh Liberation movement and served as the Acting President of Bangladesh during the country's independence struggle against Pakistan in 1971. He was one of the key leaders of the Awami League, a political party in Bangladesh, and played a crucial role in mobilizing public support for the country's freedom struggle.
After the independence of Bangladesh, Syed Nazrul Islam became the Vice President of the newly formed country, and also served as the Minister of Industries, the Minister of Rural Development and the Chairman of the Planning Commission. He was a vocal advocate of socialism and worked towards the establishment of a more egalitarian society in Bangladesh.
Syed Nazrul Islam's untimely death came during a period of political turmoil, and he was assassinated along with three other leaders of Bangladesh on November 3, 1975. The tragic event is considered to be one of the darkest moments in the country's history, and his contribution to the Bangladeshi independence struggle has been recognized and celebrated by the people of Bangladesh.
He died as a result of assassination.
Read more about Syed Nazrul Islam on Wikipedia »
Surya Sen (March 22, 1894 Chittagong-January 12, 1934 Chittagong) also known as Surjya Sen was a Bangladeshi personality.
Surya Sen was an influential Bengali revolutionary who played a significant role in India's struggle for independence against British rule. He was a master strategist and led a group of young revolutionaries known as the Chittagong group who carried out an armed revolutionary movement to overthrow the British government.
Under his leadership, the Chittagong Armory Raid of 1930 was one of the most daring and successful attempts to strike a blow against British rule. As they were outnumbered and outgunned, he and his fellow revolutionaries had to resort to guerrilla war tactics to gain control over the city. However, after a few days of fighting, they were forced to retreat to the hills.
Surya Sen and his people fled to hideout and continue their fight for independence for several months before he was eventually captured and executed by the British authorities in 1934. His bold actions inspired a generation of people to join the freedom struggle and gain independence from British rule.
He died as a result of hanging.
Read more about Surya Sen on Wikipedia »
Zahir Raihan (August 19, 1935 Feni District-January 30, 1972 Dhaka) also known as Mohammad Zahirullah or Zaheer Rehan was a Bangladeshi novelist, writer, filmmaker, film director, film producer and screenwriter.
He was one of the pioneers of the golden era of Bangladeshi cinema and is considered to be one of the most talented and versatile filmmakers in the country's history. Some of his notable works include the films "Jibon Theke Neya", "Kancher Deyal", and "Behula".
Aside from his filmmaking career, Zahir Raihan was also a renowned writer, with his most famous novel being "Arek Falgun". He was an active participant in the Bengali Language Movement and the Liberation War of Bangladesh, using his artistic talents to raise awareness for the cause. Tragically, he went missing during the war and is believed to have been killed by the Pakistani military. Despite his untimely death, his contributions to Bangladeshi literature and cinema continue to be remembered and celebrated to this day.
Read more about Zahir Raihan on Wikipedia »
Sulekha Sanyal (June 15, 1928 East Bengal-April 5, 1962) was a Bangladeshi writer and novelist.
She is widely recognized for her contribution to Bengali literature and the women's liberation movement in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the 1950s and 1960s. Born in a middle-class family, Sanyal obtained a degree in Bengali literature from Dhaka University in the early 1950s. She began her career as a teacher but soon turned to writing. Her first novel, "Uttaranga" published in 1956, was based on the life of the partition refugees. She went on to write several other novels, including "Niotir Pari" and "Avismaraniya," which tackled issues such as women's rights, communalism and societal norms.
Sanyal was an active member of the Communist Party of East Pakistan and worked closely with the Bengali cultural and literary organizations. She played a substantial role in the Language Movement of 1952 in East Pakistan, which was aimed at promoting Bengali as a state language. Sanyal was also a vocal advocate for women's rights and believed strongly in the equality of women. Her works often highlighted the challenges faced by women in a patriarchal society and called for their empowerment.
Sanyal passed away in 1962 at the young age of 33 due to breast cancer. However, her contribution to Bengali literature and the women's liberation movement in East Pakistan continues to inspire and influence writers and activists to this day.
Read more about Sulekha Sanyal on Wikipedia »
Shafiur Rahman (January 24, 1918 West Bengal-February 22, 1952 Dhaka Medical College and Hospital) was a Bangladeshi personality.
He was a Bengali language movement activist and a martyr who sacrificed his life during a peaceful student protest on February 21, 1952, which later led to the Language Movement. Rahman was a master's degree student in political science at the University of Dhaka at the time of his death. He was actively involved in the language movement and played a critical role in organizing and leading student demonstrations demanding Bengali as an official language of East Pakistan. Rahman was shot while leading a procession of students to the Dhaka High Court Building. He died the next day at the Dhaka Medical College Hospital, emerging as a symbol of the movement's success. His sacrifice will always be remembered in the history of the Bengali language movement.
Read more about Shafiur Rahman on Wikipedia »
Bagha Jatin (December 7, 1879 Kushtia District-September 10, 1915 Balasore) was a Bangladeshi personality.
He was a revolutionary fighter who actively participated in India's struggle for independence against British colonial rule. Bagha Jatin was a part of numerous resistance movements against the British and played a key role in the Indian freedom struggle. He had a deep sense of nationalism and was a passionate advocate of armed struggle as a means to achieve independence.
Bagha Jatin formed the Indian Independence Army (IAA) in 1914, which was the first armed resistance against the British rule in India. He inspired many young revolutionaries and his leadership was instrumental in spreading the idea of armed struggle for independence throughout India.
Bagha Jatin's bravery in the face of danger was legendary. He was seriously wounded during one of his battles with the British but refused to surrender and carried on fighting until he was finally captured. He was taken to a British hospital where he ultimately died due to his injuries, but not before inspiring his fellow revolutionaries to continue the fight for freedom.
Bagha Jatin's contribution to the Indian freedom struggle is immeasurable, and he continues to be remembered and celebrated as a brave revolutionary fighter for his role in the independence movement.
Read more about Bagha Jatin on Wikipedia »
Rudra Mohammad Shahidullah (October 16, 1956 Barisal-June 21, 1992 Dhaka) was a Bangladeshi poet.
He is widely considered one of the most powerful voices in modern Bengali poetry. Shahidullah's poetry often dealt with themes of political and social injustice and he was known for his use of the Bengali language in a way that was both experimental and deeply rooted in the country's language and culture. He published several collections of poetry, including "Bundu Khaner Biryani" and "Rudra Mohammad Shahidullah: Shobder Jobonika". His work has been translated into multiple languages and has been included in various anthologies of South Asian literature. Shahidullah died prematurely due to complications related to HIV/AIDS, which he had contracted through a blood transfusion during surgery. His legacy as a poet and an icon of Bangladeshi literature continues to inspire new generations of writers and readers alike.
Read more about Rudra Mohammad Shahidullah on Wikipedia »
Bangla Bhai (April 5, 1970-March 30, 2007) was a Bangladeshi politician.
However, he rose to notoriety as the leader of the Islamist militant organization Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMJB) in the mid-2000s. The group was responsible for carrying out several bombings and attacks on minority communities, including Hindus and Christians, in Bangladesh. Bangla Bhai was arrested in 2006 and subsequently executed in 2007 for his involvement in these violent activities. He remains a highly controversial figure in Bangladesh due to his extremist views and actions.
Read more about Bangla Bhai on Wikipedia »
Khaled Mosharraf (November 1, 1937 Jamalpur District-November 7, 1975) was a Bangladeshi personality.
Khaled Mosharraf was a senior army officer in Bangladesh and played a crucial role in the country's independence war in 1971. He was one of the organizers of the coup that overthrew the regime of President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in August 1975. After the coup, he was appointed as the state minister for defense and security, but he fell out of favor with the military regime, and he was assassinated in a counter-coup just a few months later. Khaled Mosharraf is remembered as a nationalist hero in Bangladesh, and his legacy continues to inspire future generations.
He died in assassination.
Read more about Khaled Mosharraf on Wikipedia »
Abu Taher (April 5, 2015 India-April 5, 1976) was a Bangladeshi personality.
Abu Taher was a prominent political figure who was one of the key leaders of the Bangladesh Liberation War. He was a member of the East Pakistan Rifles and later became a part of the guerrilla force known as the Mukti Bahini. After the independence of Bangladesh, Taher went on to become a member of parliament and also held various positions in the government, including the Minister of Agriculture. However, he was eventually arrested and executed by the military regime in 1976. Taher is remembered as a hero in Bangladesh for his contributions to the independence struggle and his selfless dedication to the people of the country.
Read more about Abu Taher on Wikipedia »
Nur Mohammad Sheikh (February 26, 1936-September 5, 1971) was a Bangladeshi personality.
He was a distinguished journalist and a renowned freedom fighter who played a significant role in Bangladesh's liberation war in 1971. Nur Mohammad Sheikh was born in a small village in Jhenaidah district of then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). He studied at the prestigious Dhaka University and later became a journalist. Nur Mohammad Sheikh worked for several newspapers such as the Daily Sangbad, the Weekly Sonar Bangla, and the Daily Ittefaq where he wrote about social and political issues in East Pakistan.
During the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, Nur Mohammad Sheikh joined the Mukti Bahini (the Bangladesh Liberation Army) and actively took part in the guerrilla warfare against the Pakistani Army. He was also involved in organizing and leading resistance movements against the Pakistani occupation forces. Unfortunately, Nur Mohammad Sheikh was killed in a battle with the Pakistani Army on September 5, 1971, just a few months before Bangladesh gained independence. He was awarded the "Bir Uttom," the second highest gallantry award in Bangladesh, for his contribution to the country's liberation struggle.
Read more about Nur Mohammad Sheikh on Wikipedia »
Abul Hasnat Muhammad Qamaruzzaman (April 5, 2015 Rajshahi-November 3, 1975) was a Bangladeshi politician.
He was one of the key leaders of the Bangladesh Liberation War and a member of the central committee of East Pakistan Jamaat-e-Islami. Qamaruzzaman played a critical role in organizing the Jamaat-e-Islami's notorious paramilitary force, Al-Badr, which committed numerous war crimes during the war. He was also accused of personally overseeing the abduction and killing of numerous pro-independence intellectuals in 1971, and was later sentenced to death by the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh in 2014 for war crimes and crimes against humanity. His execution was carried out in 2015, after being denied clemency by the President of Bangladesh. His controversial legacy remains a subject of debate in Bangladesh.
Read more about Abul Hasnat Muhammad Qamaruzzaman on Wikipedia »
Muhammad Mansur Ali (April 5, 2015 Sirajganj District-November 3, 1975) was a Bangladeshi politician. He had one child, Hassan Ali Mansur.
Muhammad Mansur Ali was the former Prime Minister of Bangladesh, serving from 1974 until his untimely death in 1975. Prior to becoming Prime Minister, Mansur Ali held several high-ranking government positions including the Minister of Finance and Planning. He was a key figure in Bangladesh's struggle for independence from Pakistan and was instrumental in negotiating the return of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from Pakistani custody following the country's independence war in 1971.
Mansur Ali was known for his commitment to socialism and progressive ideals. His tenure as Prime Minister was marked by efforts to improve the country's economic situation and promote social justice. He also sought to strengthen Bangladesh's ties with other nations in the region, particularly India.
Mansur Ali's death was a significant blow to Bangladesh's political landscape. He was assassinated just months after the country adopted a new constitution and held its first democratic elections following years of military rule. His death is widely believed to have been part of a larger conspiracy to destabilize the country's fledgling democracy. Despite his short time in office, Muhammad Mansur Ali remains a celebrated figure in Bangladesh's history and his legacy continues to inspire political leaders and activists to this day.
He died as a result of assassination.
Read more about Muhammad Mansur Ali on Wikipedia »
Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani (April 12, 1939 Tungipara Upazila-August 15, 1975 Dhaka) was a Bangladeshi politician, journalist and writer.
He was the son of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh, and the younger brother of Sheikh Kamal, a prominent figure in Bangladesh's cultural and sports scene. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani was a member of the Awami League and actively participated in the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
After the war, he worked as a journalist and wrote for various newspapers and magazines. He was also a prolific writer and authored several books on politics, history, and culture. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani was a strong advocate for democracy and freedom of speech, and his writings and speeches inspired many young people in Bangladesh.
Tragically, he was assassinated along with his two brothers, Sheikh Kamal and Sheikh Jamal, and his mother, Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib, during a military coup d'etat on August 15, 1975. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani's legacy lives on as a symbol of the struggle for democracy and human rights in Bangladesh.
Read more about Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani on Wikipedia »
Mahbub Alam Chashi (April 5, 2015-April 5, 1983) was a Bangladeshi personality.
He was born in the Chashi family in the village of Jagannathpur in Rangpur District, Bangladesh. He was a prominent politician and social worker, who played a significant role in the Bangladeshi independence movement. Chashi was imprisoned multiple times for his activism and commitment towards securing Bangladesh's freedom. After Bangladesh became independent in 1971, Chashi continued his work as a Member of Parliament, serving as the Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly. He also founded numerous organizations and was dedicated to improving the lives of impoverished communities in Bangladesh. Sadly, Chashi passed away on April 5, 1983, on his 68th birthday. He is remembered as a hero and a champion of the people.
Read more about Mahbub Alam Chashi on Wikipedia »
Manabendra Narayan Larma (April 5, 2015-November 10, 1983) was a Bangladeshi personality.
He was a prominent political leader and activist of the Chakma ethnic community. Larma was born in the Rangamati Hill District of Bangladesh and became involved in politics at a young age. He was a key figure in the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord of 1997, which ended a long-standing armed conflict between the Bangladeshi Government and various ethnic groups in the region. Larma also founded the Parbatya Chattagram Jana Samhati Samiti (PCJSS), a political organization that advocated for the rights of the hill people. His contributions towards the recognition of ethnic diversity and rights have played a crucial role in shaping modern-day Bangladesh.
Read more about Manabendra Narayan Larma on Wikipedia »
Mohammed Fazle Rabbee (September 21, 1932 Pabna District-December 15, 1971 Dhaka) was a Bangladeshi personality.
He is best known for his contribution to the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, where he served as a commander of the Mukti Bahini, the guerrilla resistance force formed by Bengali nationalists to fight against the Pakistani army. Rabbee was a trusted aide of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who later became the first Prime Minister and founding father of Bangladesh. He played a significant role in organizing and leading the Liberation War operations in the northern region of Bangladesh. Rabbee was killed in action during the final days of the war, and he is remembered as a martyr and a national hero of Bangladesh. He was posthumously awarded the Bir Uttom, the second-highest gallantry award given to members of the Bangladesh Armed Forces. Rabbee's legacy remains a source of inspiration for the people of Bangladesh, especially for the freedom fighters who fought for the independence of their country.
Read more about Mohammed Fazle Rabbee on Wikipedia »
Sarasi Kumar Saraswati (April 5, 2015 Rajshahi-April 5, 1980 Rajshahi) a.k.a. S. K. Saraswati was a Bangladeshi personality.
He was a renowned educationist, social activist, and a pioneer in the field of women's education. Born in 1915 in Rajshahi, he dedicated his life to the development of education in his country. Saraswati was a lifelong advocate for women's empowerment and worked tirelessly to promote the education of women in Bangladesh. He founded several educational institutions and was instrumental in establishing the Women Teachers' Training College in Rajshahi. Saraswati was also actively involved in social work and was a vocal supporter of the Indian independence movement. He received many accolades during his lifetime for his contributions to education and was widely regarded as a leading figure in Bangladeshi society. Saraswati passed away on April 5, 1980, on his 65th birthday, leaving behind a legacy that continues to inspire generations of educators and social activists.
Read more about Sarasi Kumar Saraswati on Wikipedia »
Muhammad Qudrat-i-Khuda (April 5, 2015 West Bengal-November 3, 1977 Dhaka) was a Bangladeshi personality.
Muhammad Qudrat-i-Khuda was a prominent scientist, educationist, and agriculturalist. He is considered to be one of the founding fathers of Bangladesh's agricultural development. He obtained his education from renowned universities such as Cambridge and Edinburgh. After independence, he played a vital role in the reconstruction of the educational and scientific establishment in the newly-formed country. He served as the first Vice-Chancellor of East Pakistan Agricultural University and established the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute. He was also awarded numerous national and international awards for his contributions to agriculture and education.
Read more about Muhammad Qudrat-i-Khuda on Wikipedia »
Mohammad Khaled Hossain (April 5, 1979-May 21, 2013) was a Bangladeshi personality.
He was an actor, model, and television host known for his work in the Bangladeshi entertainment industry. Hossain started his career in the late 1990s and gained popularity for his charming personality and versatile acting skills. He starred in numerous television dramas, films, and commercials throughout his career. Additionally, Hossain was actively involved in social work and was a prominent advocate for various humanitarian causes. He tragically passed away in 2013 at the age of 34, leaving behind a legacy as one of the most talented and well-respected entertainers in Bangladesh.
Read more about Mohammad Khaled Hossain on Wikipedia »
Mashiur Rahman (April 5, 2015 Rangpur District-March 12, 1979) a.k.a. Mashiur Rahman Jadu Mia was a Bangladeshi politician.
He was a prominent figure in the Bangladesh Awami League party and served as a Member of Parliament in the National Assembly. Rahman was heavily involved in the independence movement of Bangladesh and was instrumental in organizing mass protests and demonstrations against the Pakistani government during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. He was arrested and imprisoned numerous times for his political activism and ultimately sacrificed his life for the cause of independence. Today, he is widely revered as a hero in Bangladesh for his unwavering commitment to the country's freedom and democracy.
Read more about Mashiur Rahman on Wikipedia »
Adwaita Mallabarman (January 1, 1914 Brahmanbaria District-April 16, 1951) also known as Advaita Malla Burman or Advaita Mulya Barman was a Bangladeshi writer.
He is best known for his novel, "Teesra Samrat" (The Third Emperor), which is considered a masterpiece of modern Bangla literature. Adwaita Mallabarman was a prolific writer and a leading figure in the progressive cultural movement in East Bengal, which advocated for the rights of the working class and rural population. He was also a member of the Communist Party of India and actively participated in the Indian independence movement. Adwaita Mallabarman's other notable works include "Banpalashir Padabali" (The Ballad of Banpalash), "Maraner Danka Baje" (The Drumroll of Death) and "Putul Nacher Itikatha" (The Puppet's Story). Despite his short life, Adwaita Mallabarman's writings continue to inspire and influence generations of Bangladeshi writers and intellectuals.
Read more about Adwaita Mallabarman on Wikipedia »
Ahmed Rajib Haider (April 5, 1982-February 15, 2013) was a Bangladeshi personality.
He was known for his activism in promoting free speech and secularism in Bangladesh. Haider was a prominent blogger and a vocal critic of Islamist extremist groups. He played an important role in organizing protests against the conviction and death sentence of several leaders of the Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami party for war crimes committed during the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. However, Haider's activism brought him into the crosshairs of Islamist extremists, and he was brutally murdered in front of his house in Dhaka in 2013. The murder sparked widespread protests and condemnations from across the world, and brought attention to the rising threat of religious extremism in Bangladesh.
Read more about Ahmed Rajib Haider on Wikipedia »